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The Qualitative Research

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Nagy Attila

on 14 November 2014

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Transcript of The Qualitative Research

Made by Nikolett Nagy
The Qualitative Research
Budapest Business School
International Studies
International Research Methods

Field research paradigm
Grounded theory
Case studies and the extended case method
Institutional ethnography
Participatory action research
Naturalism and Ethnography
based on the assumption that an objective social reality exists and can be observed and reported accurately
sometimes social norms suggest something else than the reality
detailed and accurate description
becoming more of an insider - key informant
Chicago School (1930-'40)
William Foote Whyte's ethnography of Cornerville
Leon Anderson-David Snow- Field research about homeless people
the study of social life that focuses on the discovery of implicit, usually unspoken assumptions and agreement
e.g. How are you?
How I am in regard of what? ...
e.g. I had flat tire.
What do you mean, you had flat tire?
Grounded theory
an inductive approach to the study of social life that attempts to generate a theory from the constant comparing of unfolding observation
data are collected in absense of hypotheses
initial data key variables
Guidelines for Grounded Theory
think comparatively
obtain multiple viewpoints
periodically step back
maintain an attitude of skepticism
follow the research procedures
Case studies and Extended case method
case study: an exploratory research method that intensively investigates one or a few situation similar to the researcher's problem situation
extended case method: a technique developed by Michael Buraway in which case study observations are used to discover flaws in and to improve existing social theories
Preparing for Field Work
Fill in your knowledge of the subject
Find out the question you would like to study
Decide which method is the most appropriate
Discuss the group you plan to research with an informant
Develop an identity with the people to be studied
Realize that your initial contract with the group can influence your obsrevation

Techniques of Qualitative Research
Qualitative Interviewing
Focus Group
Participant Observation
Qualitative interviewing
Focus Group
A group of people are brought together in a room to engage in guided discussion of a topic (e.g. products, advertisement, campaign etc.). It's purpose is to stimulate spontaneous responses.
Group composition:
ideal size 6-10 individuals
homogeneous groups (sex, residence,age,social status, jobs etc.)
The Moderator's tasks:
to develop a rapport with the group
to promote nteraction among its members
to gain the confidence of people
to make them fell relaxed and eager to talk
to listen carefully to people
to focus the discussion on the problem area of concern or change the flow of discussion

Advantages of Focus Group
Socially oriented research method
Speedy results
Low in cost
Disadvantages of Focus Group
Less control than individual interviews
Data can be difficult to analyze
Moderators must be skilled
Cannot be used for confidental, private discussions or conversations where the social norms are too strong
Participant Observation
The only method to examine people's behaviour in their natural habitat and realize how they "really are" and not to accept what they say about how they are.
Appropriate for
get to know other/foreign cultures, subcultures
organization research
field reseach (street, station, disco etc.)
social events (demonstration, negotiation etc.)
Roles of the observer
Researcher's identity is
Researcher's identity is
The observer
takes part
in group's activity
The observer
does not take part
is grup's activity
Is it ethical?
Ethical questions
To talk to people when they don't know you will be recording their words?
To get information for your own purposes from people you hate?
To be is a situation but not commit yourself wholeheartedly to it?
To "use" people as informants in order to gain entreé to other people or to elusive understandings?
E.g. observing pedestrians on the street
E.g. doing the same things than the group members do as a researcher
E.g. observing the group members' activity as a researcher
Budapest 8th November 2014
What is Qualitative Research?
of observation that originated in the social and behavioral sciences: sociology, anthropology and psychology
Qualitative researchers aim to gather an
in-depth understanding
of human behavior in
their natural environment
and the reasons that govern such behavior
It uses in-depth studies of
small groups
of people to guide and support the research question
Uses a
purposeful sample
, not a random one
The results of qualitative research are
rather than predictive
No pre-defined hypotheses
direct observation
what people say
what people do
General Research Question
Selection of relevant site and participnats
Collection of relevant data
Interpretation of data
Conceptual and theoritical work
Writing up findings/ conclusions
An interaction between an interviewer and a respondent in which the interviewer has a general plan of inquiry but not a specific set of questions that must be asked with particular words and in a particular order.
Seven Stages of Interviewing
2. Design
3. Interviewing
4. Transcribing
5. Analyzing
6. Verifying and checking facts
7. Reporting
Good advice...
Don't trust your memory take notes while you observe
Take sketch notes in the field and rewrite them later, filling in details
Record everything things that don't seem important may turn to be significant
Realize that most of your field notes will not be reflected in your final project

Thank You for your attention
What is Qualitative Research?
Paradigms of Qualitative Research
How to prepare for a field work?
Qualitative Research methods
Ethical questions

Research procedure
Full transcript