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Transcript of Anne Frank
Anne Frank was born into a Jewish family on 12th June 1929 in Frankfurt, Germany. Her full name was Annelies Marie Frank. Anne's parents were Otto and Edith Frank and her sister was Margot Frank. Her father Otto was a very good businessman and her mother stayed at home to mind the girls. The Franks led quite a nice life, with nice clothes and a nice apartment. Anne and Margot had a nickname for their father: Pim. Otto was a very good photographer and Anne had soft spot for him.
The first photo taken of Anne was taken by
Otto when she was 1 day old.
Anne also had a soft spot for her granny Oma
because she loved to spoil her. Once when Anne
was 4 1/2 Oma and Anne went on a bus. The
bus was very cramped and there was no room
for Anne or Oma to sit down. Anne was furious that nobody would give up their seat for Oma so she shouted down the bus "won't someone offer a seat to this old lady?". She was only 4 1/2 but she was always outspoken. Anne did not get on very well with her mother and they often had fights. It was mainly Anne's fault because she had no patience.
On 30th January 1933 Adolf Hitler became the ruler of Germany. That's when the trouble started!
Adolf Hitler was born on 20th April 1889 in Austria. He was the führer of the Nazis from 1934-1945 and had very strong ideas about the way Jews behaved. On 30th January 1933 he became the dictator of Germany. Hitler blamed the Jews for many of the country's problems. Hitler killed thirteen million people, of which six million were Jews! During the last few days of World War II he committed suicide rather than have to face a trial, or so people say!
Who started it all?
Like most small children, Anne was not aware of the world outside home. She didn't know that Germany was going through massive changes that in the end would be the cause of her death. Things went from bad to worse. Not long after Adolf Hitler became the dictator, life for Jews took a turn for the worse. Jews had to live in separate neighborhoods, go to a Jewish school and couldn't take certain jobs. Even though it seemed that life for Jews couldn't get much worse, it did. Hitler decided that he wanted every Jew
Otto Frank was worried. He had lived in Germany all his life and was very proud of it. Otto and Edith had to make a hard decision which they never thought they would have to make. They decided they should move from Germany. For a short time they moved to Switzerland where one of Anne's grandmothers lived. In Autumn of 1933 Otto went to Amsterdam. By 1934 the whole family were living in Amsterdam. There were several reasons why they moved:
The people of Amsterdam were well known for getting on with everyone, including Jews.
It was close to Germany, so when Hitler did get kicked out they could go back to Germany.
Otto could already speak Dutch.
Decisions, decisions, decisions
Life in Amsterdam
The family were getting on really well in Amsterdam. Otto started a new company which made pectin. They moved to a brand new apartment. The girls started school and made new friends. Everyone except Edith picked up Dutch quite quickly. The family were convinced that they were safe, but they were wrong! The Franks were not the only family who moved to Amsterdam. Soon they had found families in the same situation as them. At school half the children in Anne's class were Jewish and some even from Frankfurt. Anne's best friend was called Hanne. Hanne went along with all Anne's pranks. Sometimes Anne and Hanne would stand on the balcony of the Frank's apartment and pour water on the people below! Another of Anne's favourite tricks was to crack her knuckles which made people squirm.
In many ways Anne's childhood was like most children's. Anne loved swimming, reading,ice-skating and going to the cinema. The only difference was sometimes scary things happened. In 1938 Anne's uncle Walter was arrested and sent to a concentration camp. He was lucky enough to get out by promising to move out of Germany. In the first few months of 1940 it was freezing cold. Anne's parents were worried about there being an attack on the Netherlands. There had been warnings about the Germans invading. Every time a warning went out it proved to be a false alarm.
In late spring of 1940 everyone's worst fear came true. On 10th May 1940, Germany invaded. The morning of the attack, bombs dropped from the sky. Two days later more bombs fell on Amsterdam. The bombs hit the airport and it went on fire! As dreadful as it all sounds, Amsterdam was lucky. Another city, Rotterdam, had been destroyed. Thousands of people died.
Anne's family were running out of food, but they were not alone. After about two days there was no food in the shops. Anne's parents knew they had to do something or they would die. They couldn't get out of Amsterdam so their only chance was to hide!
A Jewish Life
Soon Germany had control of the Netherlands. Nazi flags went up everywhere. All Jews, even Anne and Margot, had to register with the Germans. The idea behind this was so Hitler could keep track of all the Jews. He wanted to know who each person was, where he or she lived and what age they were. Jews were made give nearly all their money to Hitler. Every Jew had their job taken off them. Otto Frank handed over his business to two of his non-Jewish friends who already worked there.
Books by Jewish authors were banned. So were movies made by Jews. Jews couldn't even attend movies. Anne loved movies, so she was very upset when she heard this.
In June of 1942 Anne had her thirteenth birthday. Anne got lots of presents but her favourite present was a diary. Anne called the diary "Kitty" after an old friend called Kitty. Two days after her birthday Anne made her first entry in her diary. Every entry started "Dear Kitty".
Diary entry in "Kitty"
One Sunday afternoon in early July 1942, a notice arrived in the post. Margot was to be sent to a concentration camp in Germany! She was ordered to show up at a train station the next day with all her belongings and enough food to survive a three-day trip!
Otto and Edith decided the only thing to do was to hide. That night Otto and Edith packed everything they would need to go into hiding.
The next morning the family fled to a secret hiding place. For weeks Otto had been preparing the hideout. The hideout was attached to Otto's work offices. It was very small and had earned itself the name of the secret annex.
Life In The Annex
There were strict rules in the annex: you couldn't wear shoes, open the curtains, you could only whisper, no one could flush the toilet or turn on the tap.
One night when Anne was listening to the news on the radio they said that all diaries and letters from the war would be published. Anne wished for her diary to be published.
By the time Anne turned fifteen, the families had been hiding for over two years. Then on the morning of 4th August 1944 Otto heard mens' voices. Nazi police barged their way into the annex. Anne and her family were sent to a concentration camp in Poland. Anne was separated from her family. Anne came down with a sickness called typhus. She died on 12th March 1945. In April, British soldiers arrived and freed everyone still alive in the camp. Only Otto survived the war.
Anne Frank: Diary of a Young girl
When Otto read Anne's diary he was shocked by how much she had written in it. When he showed it to some of his friends they told him to bring it to a publishers. Otto brought the book to the publishers where they decided to make it into a book. In the summer of 1947, Anne's diary was published. First it was called "The Secret Annex". Then later the title was changed to "Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl".