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Protein Coagulation

Skills 1 Special Project Protein Coagulation

David Wang

on 7 June 2011

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Transcript of Protein Coagulation

Protein Coagulation David Wang Stephan de Souza First... Protein: large polymers made up of smaller molecular units called amino acids. Why Do Amino Acids Matter? Amino acids participate in the browning reactions that generate flavor at high cooling temperatures. Many single amino acids and short peptides have tastes of their own, and in foods where proteins have been partly broken down, these tastes can contribute to the overall flavor. They have a variety of chemical natures which influence the structure and behavior of the protein they're a part of. Proteins are formed by linking the amine nitrogen of one amino acid with a carbon atom on another amino acid, and then repeating this "peptide bond" to make a chain dozens or hundred of amino acids long. Protein Coagulation occurs because the molecules have been extended in length and become more likely to bump into each other. Because their side groups are now exposed and available for forming bonds, denatured proteins begin to bond with each other, or coagulate. denaturation: the undoing of the protein molecules' natural structure by chemical means such as salts and acids, or physical means such as heat and aggitation. denaturation usually breaks down the tertiary and secondary structures, changing the 3-dimensional shape of the protein helixes into long amino acid chains. Snooze...Science...

Examples...Fun! Cooking an egg, the ovalbumin protein in the egg white is denatured, and coagulates to form the white solid. In making a baked custard, the object is to control coagulation of egg proteins to produce a firm but smooth gel structure. Whole eggs start to coagulate at about 158ºF (70ºC), but when other ingredients such as milk and sugar are added as in making a baked custard, coagulation starts at a higher temperature of 176ºF (80ºC). Coagulation has its benefits, but also its costs.

Meat tenderize at 120°. (Protein myosin coagulates, meat’s connective tissue breaks down.)

Also begins losing moisture above 140°F

Speeds up over 150°F

Meat is dried above 160°F.

Sous Vide solves this problem.
- process of cooking vacuum sealed food in a low temperature water bath over long periods of time.

In sous vide you can hold the meat below 140°F long enough for the slower tenderization process to be effective = very tender meat, still moist and not overcooked.

Resulting food is pale and soft,

Needs blast of heat to form the traditional crust.

Heston Blumenthal: "Sous-vide cooking is the single greatest advancement in cooking technology in decades." On Food and Cooking – Harold McGee ; pg 805 – 809

Proteins as Human Food – Easter School in Agricultural Science; pg 228-240

Poached Egg Video

Sous Vide Video

Custard Video

Protein Coagulation or Denaturation
by Rita Snyder

Health Food Facts : What Is Egg Coagulation?
by Merrilee Jacobs

Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint
by Belle Lowe, 1937

Meat Science and Applications
by Yui H. Hui

Experimental Cooking
by MA Brown and AG Cameron http://greensandbeans.wordpress.com/2008/06/27/under-pressure-by-thomas-keller/

Enzymes for Cheese
by the Molecular Gastronomist site

Experimental Food Science
by MarjorieP. Penfield and Ada Marie Campbell

"Yogurt Meringue"
by Albert and Ferran Adria

Cooking Sous Vide: A Guide for the Home Cook
CookingSousVide.com, 2009

Sous Vide
by Evan Sung for The New York Times
Full transcript