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Course 4sa526 - theoretical part

Antonin Pavlicek

on 16 February 2018

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Transcript of 4sa526-history-digitalisation-books-telegraph-audio-video

Speech/Language (H. Sapiens)
Writing (info. storage)
Print (industry approach)
Mass Media (inf. dissemination)
Telegraph (free of matter)
Photo, Film, Radio, TV (multimedia)
Digitalization (chip)

e- services
Web 2.0
Social media
1848 – London Times – revolving press
1850 – New York Sun average capacity of the presses was 2,000 single sheets per hour by cylinder, or 20,000 on the ten-cylinder.
1890‘s – endless paper
1980‘s – DTP
2000‘s – e-books
2008 – e-ink link
New media & Social network services
About course
Course Outline
Please ask...
Theory behind New Media.
Discussing topics such as:
Class attendece
Obligatory Reading - at least one book:
Lessig, Lawrence - Free-culture
Negroponte - Being Digital
Harari - Sapiens
Brynjolfsson - 2nd age of machines
Research essay with topic of New Media / Social Networks - group of 4-5 students
Topic of research must be accepted by 3rd week!
Weeks 1-5
theory of communication and New Media
community webs - Wikipedia, Blogosphere, ...
Social Networking Sites (Facebook & co.)
Closing, grading - 13th week
PhDr. Ing. Antonín Pavlicek, Ph.D. - tearcher


Consulattioon hours - ISIS
Late penalities:

1 day 10 %
1 week 30 %
2 weeks 70 %

History of communication
Week 01
The first proto-Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe as early as 600,000-350,000 BC!

Neanderthals had more robust build and much stronger than modern humans; their relatively robust stature is thought to be an adaptation to the cold climate of Europe during the Pleistocene epoch.
have used tools, which were often produced using using stone hammers
Controlled fire, constructed complex shelters, and skinned animals. Besides axes and spears and used trap.
Musical instruments, art - culture, religion“

Neanderthal extinction 45 000 24 500 BC WHY?!?

Speech versus Language
stone tools show regular patterns that are reproduced or duplicated with more precision
attained modern cognition and language
Enabled more complex social behaviour
Brain capacity, thinking!! and planning (abstraction associated with concept of tomorrow)
Homo Neanderthal
Do you konw him?
Next step? - Any Idea???
about 3300 B.C., writing was invented in Mesopotamia, city of Uruk, where the earliest inscribed clay tablets have been found in abundance
Stone tablets (2141 B.C.)
Mathematics 1800 B.C.
Rosetta Stone (200 B.C.)
Symbolic / alphabetical writing
Why is writing so important?
transfers ideas over TIME and SPACE
enhance complexity of the social system (trade, administration, taxes, )
enhances memory
consequence of the burgeoning needs of accounting
Printing press with movable types

Johannes Gutenberg -1455

180 copies (45 on parchment, 135 on paper)

in 2000 voted as a biggest inventer of millenium
long way to the
Consequences of the print
reduced price!

industrialization of information transfer

rapidly spread across Europe, leading up to Renaissance – protestantism – capitalism – western dominance of the world
Mass media
59 B.C. - Acta Diurna the first newspaper is published in Rome.

1605 - First printed weekly newspaper Relation (Antwerp).

1631: The first French newspaper published, the Gazette (Richelieu)

1690: The first newspaper in America, Publick Occurrences.

1702: the first daily newspaper The Daily Courant (1702–35), which consisted largely of extracts from foreign corantos

1711 - Spectator circulation as high as 3,000 copies, enough to attract advertising.

1712 - Stamp Act, along with other so-called taxes on knowledge aimed at curbing the nascent power of the press.
1833 (till 1950) – The Sun - Benjamin Day - 1st edition consisted of four small pages
The price was 1¢; much less than other New York dailies at the time. New economic model of media - valid until today.
The Sun was the first paper in the city to employ newsboys.
By 1835, Day claimed a circulation of 19,360, the largest in the world, 1839 50,000
Hoaxes – life on moon, lion escaped,
1835-James Gordon Benett, The New York Herald
1895: Yellow journalism – Pulitzer vs. Hearst (You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war)
1903: The first tabloid style newspaper, the Daily Mirror
1915: lord Northcliffe (news is what somebody somewhere wants to suppress; all the rest is advertising.
Technology development
Research Essay
2nd lesson - Topics and content will be discussed
4th lesson - first draft of paper (50 % - research outline)
8th lesson - deadline of the paper
10th lesson - peer reviews
Probably the most important technological change in 20th century.
A digital system uses discrete numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons.
Why we "Digitalize" everything nowadays?
Because "SILICON" based semi-conductor technology can NOT process continuous spectrum!!! But easily works with discreet numbers!!

Optical telegraph operated in France from 1792 through 1846
1837 – electrical telegraph (Samuel Morse)
For the first time the message was liberated from the matter (messanger)
1857 – transatlantic cable
1876 – first telephone call made by Alexander Graham Bell.
1897: Guglielmo Marconi patents the wireless telegraph.
1906 – radio (AM)
1935 - radio (FM)
1960‘s – communication satelites
(geostational orbit – 35 000 km)
Telegraph / telephone
1st "modern" ICT technology.
1826 - Nicéphore Niépce's 1st photography
1839 – Talbot / Daguerre – daguerreotype
1855 – Crimean War
1888 – George Eastman
Kodak roll-film camera preloaded with enough film for 100 exposures
„You press the button, we do the rest“
1890‘s – Photo in newspaper
1932 – colour photography (Agfacolour - GER)
1963 – Instant photo (Polaroid)
1981 – Digital photo (real use since 2000‘s)
Turning digital too
March 22, 1895 - Auguste and Louis Lumière
Sortie des Usines Lumière à Lyon (Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory - filmstrip was 17 meters long, runs approximately 46 seconds
1907 – film INDUSTRY - 4,000 small “nickelodeons” in the US
Hollywood studios, celebrities, audience, film language, different cultures, spare time …
1920's - Radio
1927 – sound film The Jazz Singer
1930's - TV
1975 – video Betamax 1976 VHS
1995 – DVD
2000s – P2P networks
2005 – YouTUBE
Moving picutres
Digital technology
Digital TV (DVB-...)
Why even traditional TV is turning digital?
CPU power
Communication media in history
To be continued...
Hopefuly not too much
boooring history / theory
(includes pictures:)
Consequences of digitalisation
Historical digital systems
* A beacon - smoke signals
* Morse code
* The Braille system
* Semaphore signalling
* modem


Digital code“ does not have meaning“



Easy transfer
Easy modification/manipulation
Perfect copy (problem of transformation)
Low costs

Problem with durability
Information/Data Oversaturation

How to make a movie in virtual environment?

Why YouTube is full of TV rips?

What is film language?
Topics for Theoretical essay:
Social Media in Education
Social Media in Business
Privacy on social networks ...
Transformative Power of Social Media
Innovative Potential of New Media
New Trends in Social Media
Social Media and Mobile Technologies
Social Media and ....
Topics related to New Media and Social Media, such as:

Describe the current methodologies and best practicies in the world and in the Czech Republic for recruitment through social networks. Compare them with each other and try to suggest you consider best practice recruitment.

What are the advantages and disadvantages for Web 2.0 for recruitment, with regard to social networks?

Find out using a network graph, whether there are links between people on social networks that would help HR professionals to reach passive candidates. To analyze the data, you can use a free tool Gephi.

Are social media harmful to ... Students? Privacy? Eldery?
Original research articles are typically structured in this basic order:

Literature research
- Why was the study undertaken? What was the research question, the tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research?
- When, where, and how was the study done? What materials were used or who was included in the study groups (patients, etc.)?
Results - What answer was found to the research question; what did the study find? Was the tested hypothesis true?
Discussion - What might the answer imply and why does it matter? How does it fit in with what other researchers have found? What are the perspectives for future research?

Come concrete ideas:

How to measure "success" on Social networks? Come up with your own metrics.
Find out using a network graph, whether there are links between people on social networks that would help HR professionals to reach passive candidates. To analyze the data, you can use a free tool Gephi.
Describe the current methodology and best practicies in the world and in the Czech Republic for recruitment through social networks. Compare them with each other and try to suggest you consider best practice recruitment.
What are the advantages and disadvantages for Web 2.0 for recruitment, with regard to social networks?

Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication or other information which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by governments, media outlets, authorities or other groups or institutions.
Richelieu, catolilc church, monarchy
Communist regimes
Economic interests
Political interests (Berlusconi?)
China, Facebook?
Relevant academic sources from

Comments under FB posts
FCB x VKontakte comparsion
Czech, German, ... elections
Cultural differences
Migrant crisis
Newspaper on-line x print
Movies - predicting success based on Facebook data
Full transcript