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taylor hartwickon 3 December 2012
Transcript of XYY Syndrome
The symptoms are:
•Learning disability ( Attention Deficit Disorder)
•Delayed language skills
•Behavioral problems- due to higher testosterone levels
•Large teeth, hands and feet
•Lower IQs than other members in the family
•Poor fine motor coordination
•More physically active than others
•Severe adolescent acne
Most of the time these symptoms are very slight and there isn't enough evidence to get a diagnosis. What is it? XYY Syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder that only affects males. Males usually have an X and Y chromosome. Males that are affected by XYY Syndrome have an extra Y chromosome, so they have 47 chromosomes instead of 46.
XYY Syndrome is also called Jacob's Syndrome, XYY Karyotype and YY Syndrome. Prevention Current Research In most cases XYY Syndrome is not inherited. The mother or father have nothing to do with the child getting XYY Syndrome. XYY Syndrome happens when there is a error in cell division. The chromosome change happens in a random event in the formation of the sperm when coming together with the egg to form the fetus during the second phase of meiosis. It can also happen during early fetal development soon after conception. This results in the sperm cells having an extra Y chromosome. If one of these reproductive cells contributes to the makeup of the child, the child will have an extra Y chromosome in each cell in his body.
XYY syndrome used to be called the super-male syndrome. Men who had this were thought to be overly aggressive and more likely to become criminals. People thought this because during the 1960's researchers found there were a lot of men with XYY syndrome in prison and mental institutes. The researchers did not consider the large amount of males with the syndrome that were not in prisons and mental institutes. Since the 1960's less biased research has been done on males with XYY syndrome. Most of the time, a male with XYY Syndrome will grow through their whole life and have no idea that they have it because it doesn't show at all. Genetic Inheritance History Symptoms There is no treatment needed for the syndrome but if the symptoms are strong speech therapy, physical therapy, and occupational therapy could be helpful. Males with XYY syndrome are at risk in stressful environments, so a supportive family is important. Help at school and home may also reduce learning and behavior problems. About 1 in 1000 males are born with XYY Syndrome or 5-10 newborns a day. Only males can be affected by XYY Syndrome. XXY Syndrome was the last of common sex chromosome aneuplodies to be discovered.
The first report of a man with a XYY syndrome was by Avery Sandberg at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York in 1961. The finding was incidental in a normal 44-year-old, 6 ft. tall average man. He was karyotyped because his daughter had Down syndrome. After that only twelve XYY syndrome cases were found in the next four years. Genetic screening for XYY syndrome involves a cytogenetic analysis. The cytogenetic analysis looks at the number, structure, and arrangement of chromosomes to see if there are any chromosome abnormalities. This screening is done when there are symptoms of XYY syndrome after birth. Another way of finding out you have XYY syndrome is through amniocentesis or villus sampling when the mother is pregnant with the child. Amniocentesis and villus sampling are tools that line up chromosomes by their sizes and light and dark banding pattern. The sampling is usually taken when mother is 35 years or over. Genetic Screening When there is a XYY baby the parents did nothing to cause the syndrome. They can also do nothing to prevent the syndrome since the extra chromosome can never be removed. The chance of having XYY baby again is very unlikely. Sources In Amniocentesis sampling, a small amount of amniotic fluid is taken from around the baby. The fluid contains contains the genetic makeup of the baby. The test can reveal if there is anything wrong with the baby and if it is a male or female. This can be done after 14 weeks of pregnancy. Villus Sampling can happen earlier than amniocentesis. It is done by taking a small amount of the developing placenta. The placenta is made up of projections called chorionic villi. The cells contain the same makeup as the fetus and can determine the chromosome and genetic makeup of the baby. This can be performed between 10 and 12 weeks of pregnancy. A XYY Syndrome Karotype A study in 2003 was done called the XYY syndrome: A follow-up study on 38 boys. The study concluded that during the last decade there has been an increase in XYY males being detected prenatally. The researchers wanted to get a good idea how males with XYY Syndrome develop. They also wanted to see the possible problem areas during further development. In the study 38 XYY males were observed and 12 were diagnosed prenatally. They found that the males are at risk for delayed language and motor development. From when the males were born their weight, height and head size were above average. The majority of the males attended a normal education for kindergarten but 50% of the males were documented for psychosocial problems. After kindergarten there was a larger risk for autism. Most of the boys were referred to special education programs. 47xxy syndrome. (2012, November 06). Retrieved from http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/symbol/47_xyy_syndrome/intro.htm
47,xxy syndrome. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.inheritedhealth.com/condition/47__XYY_Syndrome/9/tests
47,xxy syndrome. (2012, November 05). Retrieved from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/47xyy-syndrome
Beltz, C. (2005). Xyy syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/xyy-syndrome-1
Chorionic villus sampling . (2012). Retrieved from http://reproductivegenetics.com/cvs-chorionic-villus-sampling
Geerts , M., Steyaert, J., & Fryns, J. P. (2003). The xyy sndrome: A follow up study on 38 boys. Retrieved from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15119895
PacNoRGG. (2002, July). 47,xxy syndrome. Retrieved from http://here.doh.wa.gov/materials/sex-chromosome-problems-discovered-through-prenatal-diagnosis-47xyy-syndrome/15_Gen47XYY_E02L.pdf
Ratcliffe, S. (2007, June). Xyy syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.cafamily.org.uk/medical-information/conditions/x/xyy-syndrome/
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