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IB History Move to Global War Italy
Transcript of IB History Move to Global War Italy
Impact of fascism on the foreign policy of Italy
Impact of domestic economic issues on the foreign policies of Italy
Changing diplomatic alignments in Europe; the end of collective security; appeasement
Italian expansion: Abyssinia (1935–1936); Albania; entry into the Second World War
International response to Italian aggression (1935–1936, 1940)
ITALY'S MOVE TO GLOBAL WAR
WHY WAS ITALY READY TO EMBRACE FASCISM IN THE 1920s?
Italy, like Germany, was a largely divided nation for much of its History. It was only in the later 1800's that it became unified. However, the deep divisions between different regions did not disappear overnight. The period from unification to fascist dictatorship in 1922 is referred to as Liberal Italy. Many historians suggest it was the failures of this system, rather than the strengths of Italian fascism, that caused dictator Benito Mussolini's rise to power in 1922.
LACK OF NATIONAL IDENTITY
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
WORKING CLASS PROTEST & ECONOMIC TURMOIL
"IL DUCE" MUSSOLINI & FASCISM
"Those years before the World War were filled by political twists and turns. Italian life was not easy. Difficulties were many for the people. The conquest of Libya had exacted its toll of lives and money in a measure far beyond our expectation. Our lack of political understanding brought at least one riot a week.
During one government of Giolitti I remember 22 [riots]. They had their harvest of killed and wounded and of corroding bitterness of heart…Riots and upheavals among day labourers, among the peasants in the Po Valley, riots in the south. And in the meantime, above all this wasting away of normal life, there went on the tournament and the joust of political parties struggling for power."
Adapted from Benito Mussolini, My Autobiography, Paternoster Library, The Mayflower Press, 1928. Mussolini, at the time of writing in 1928, was dictator of Italy. In the following passage he is reflecting on politics just before the First World War.
With reference to Content, Origin and Purpose, what are the values and limitations of this source to a Historian studying the importance of working-class protests in the downfall of Liberal Italy? (4 points)
What can we learn from this source about the Italian economy leading up to the First World War? (2 points)
WHAT DID ITALY GAIN FROM WORLD WAR I?
Britain and France had heavy reservations about honoring the Treaty of London.
Italy had not lived up to many of its promises and, when they did contribute to the war effort, they were ineffective.
F and B had supreme contempt for Italy at the PPC, but were willing to honor the treaty.
Italy got a permanent seat on the League of Nations, Tyrol and some German reparations, but did not get Fiume or to keep control parts of Yugoslavia. They were furious and referred to WWI as a "mutilated victory".
Points of contention were strong over Fiume and the formation of the new state of Yugoslavia.
However, Woodrow Wilson refused due to the principle of self determination and opposition to secret treaties.
WHAT IS FASCISM & WHY WAS IT APPEALING?
Read Mussolini's "What is Fascism?" and rewrite the points in your own words. These can be brief bullet points but must summarize the aspects of fascism.
With reference to Origin, Content, and Purpose, discuss the values and limitations of the source for historians studying fascism.
FOR WHAT REASONS AND WITH WHAT RESULTS DID ITALY INVADE ETHIOPIA?
& MUSSOLINI'S RISE
Write a response (500-600 words) explaining the appeal of fascism to the Italian people after World War II: consider political instability, the post-war peace treaties, economic developments, and the Fiume Affair. Use the "What is Facism?" as well as the "Growth of Italian Fascism" reading on the Weebly.
Domestic politics was unstable in the extreme- no parties commanded majorities and could not form coalitions.
Economic turmoil- high inflation, fixed wages and rising unemployment caused anger with the government.
The Catholic Church began backing the Fascists, further weakening confidence in Italian institutions.
Foreign humiliation- Italy did not receive anywhere near what it hoped to in the WWI peace settlements, despite it having been part of the winning side! This enraged the Nationalists and made the Liberal government look incompetent.
The draw of Mussolini- Amidst the chaos of the nation, Mussolini's blackshirted men presented an ordered system offering to return Italy to "greatness".
FASCISM VERSUS COMMUNISM
Both more appealing in times of economic and political crisis, and both had a legitimate chance of destroying liberal/republican Italy.
Review the differences and similarities between the two from our google doc chart earlier in the year.
Create a recording of a discussion between a communist and a fascist about their view for a new Italy. 1-2 minutes.
HOW & WHY DID MUSSOLINI & FASCISM PREVAIL?
An excerpt from Mussolini's autobiography, 1928
Explain the problems facing pre-WWI Italy.
Justify his rule by showing preceeding period as chaotic.
PAPER ONE SKILL
3rd question you will answer
Labelled question 11 on the exam
Looking at the similarities and differences across sources concerning their views of and content about a historical event or person.
6 Marks, 25% of paper one grade
Compare and contrast the views expressed in sources below regarding reactions to the Abyssinian Crisis in 1936. (6 marks)
ONE PARAGRAPH COMPARE
ONE PARAGRAPH CONTRAST
DO NOT TREAT SOURCE SEPARATELY
ONLY CONSIDER CONTENT AND MEANING
NOT ORIGIN AND PURPOSE
3 compare points + 3 contrast points
4 compare points + 2 contrast points
2 compare points + 4 contrast points
PRACTICE FOR HOMEWORK
Mark the answer out of 6
** Note: historians have long argued about the definition of fascism
Repudiates Pacifism: Conflict makes men & nations great.
Repudiates Marxist Socialism- denies class conflict as the shaper of history.
Repudiates Democracy: Denies that the majority can, or should, direct human society.
Repudiates Equality: Inequality is more fruitful. The idea of political equality “absurb”.
Holiness and heroism. A man can only be judged in a life and death situation.
The STATE is absolute. Individuals are only viewed in relation to the state. All important decisions belong to the STATE.
Leaves the people some liberty, but not harmful ones like freedom of press and speech.
EMPIRE. The denial imperialism is a sign of weakness.
Severe measures against those who oppose the state.
People and state needs AUTHORITY, DISCIPLINE, DIRECTION, and ORDER.
WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON THE MAJOR POWERS?
Read pages 100-112 in your Move to Global War. Make a chart in your notes looking at the political, economic, and iternational effects of the Great Depression on Britain, France, the United States, Germany and the Soviet Union.
Be ready for a Quiz next class.
HOW EFFECTIVE WAS MUSSOLINI'S FASCISISATION OF THE ITALIAN ECONOMY?
As it stood in the early 1920s, Italy's economy was quite fragile and dependent. An embargo by one of the major nations could be crippling, and potentially lead to social unrest that could topple the regime.
Make economy less dependent on countries like France, Britain, and the United States.
If Italy is less dependent, these nations have less power over Italy.
Italy would then have more ability to wage war and regain its empire.
Mussolini chose to remodel Italy's economy. Initially this was through moving it towards nations that produced primarily food. This meant that it could also then export its manufactured goods to those nations.
There was also a move to strengthen or expand Italy's colonies in Africa.
However, it is questionable as to whether his economic policies led to any positive change in Italy's economy in the short or long term, despite the fact that his foreign policy aim of expansion was made possible.
Stabilize the economy to prevent overthrow of the fascist regime.
Read the text "Mussolini's Fascist Economy" and understand (not just what the phases are, but WHY they happened) the four phases of Italy's economy between 1922-39.
ITALY AND ABYSSINIA SOURCES
Breaking News Report Task- ABYSSINIA.
In groups of two, create a 3-4 minute audio or video report explaining the Abyssinian Crisis in the style of a news bulletin.
You should be looking to;
Describe what happened
Explain reasons why Italy invaded
Explain International reactions to the events
Use the documents on the Weebly to review the events.
The League was unlikely to do anything to stop him.
Italy was militarily superior & in good geographic position.
Italy angry at its treatment in the Treaty of Versailles
The economic situation in Italy
Abyssinia was the only part of E.Africa left uncolonised
What was the most important reason Mussolini invaded Abyssinia?
How did others respond to the Abyssinia Crisis?
1. Complete the table below explaining (description with reasons or causes) international reaction to the Abyssinian invasion.
2. Color code the columns by how effective/ active the reaction to the Abyssinian Crisis was from Red (very active) to blue (inactive).
BRITAIN & FRANCE
IN 1936, Selassie traveled to Geneva, Switzerland to make a plee to the League of Nations on behalf of the people of Abyssinia
Read the transcript of the speech that is on my Weebly and complete the following:
"With regards to origin, purpose, and content, discuss the values and limitations of the source to someone studying the Abyssinian Crisis"
Write a 150-200 word response to Selassie from either Britain, France, or the United States eplaining your position on the topic.
Emperor of Ethiopia/Abyssinia
Sought to modernize Ethiopia into a forward thinking state, one on par with Europe.
Strangely, he attempted to do this as an absolute monarch
Became well known to the world as the leader defending his nation against Italian agression.
He was temporarily removed from power after the defeat to the Italians, but returned to power in the 1940s and ruled until 1974
"one of the most bizarre and misunderstood figures in 20th-century history, alternately worshipped and mocked, idolised and marginalised."
ITALY & GERMANY
FOR WHAT REASONS, AND IN WHAT WAYS, DID ITALY GERMANY STRENGTHEN THEIR RELATIONSHIP IN THE MID TO LATE 1930s?
FOR WHAT REASONS
IN WHAT WAYS
Sanctions against Italy during Abyssinia pushed Italy further from France & Britain.
Similarities in political ideology: fascism.
Both were revisionist states: wanted to revise the Treaty of Versailles.
Expansionsit goals, seeking to make Italy/Germany great again.
Italy hoped Germany could help Italy break the naval supremacy of the Brits in the Mediterranean and give her support for her excursions into the Balkans.
Germany needed Italian support for German annexation of Austria
Italy's shared border with France made an alliance with her beneficial for Germany.
ROME-BERLIN AXIS (1936)
PACT OF STEEL (1940)
Informal agreement between the two fascist powers aimed at creating military and economic ties between the two countries.
INVOLVEMENT IN SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1936-39)
Outlined their mutual foreign policies & spheres of interest.
ITALY JOINS ANTI-COMINTERN PACT (1937)
Formed in 1936 between Japan & Germany. Meant to stop the international sread of Communism.
Formalized the Rome Berlin Axis. Commited both countries to support each other in case of war.
INSTABILITY OF DOMESTIC POLITICS
KING VICTOR EMANUEL