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Ancient Greece: Athens vs. Sparta

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Sarah Kupiec

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Greece: Athens vs. Sparta

Ancient Greece: Athens vs. Sparta
Impact of interaction :Athens
formed the Delian League to ward off Persians and cohere city-states
Pericles could now dictate laws, trade and more of all Attica and its neighbors
being defeated during the Peloponnesian war weakened Athens and took its wealth
led to being defeated again by Macedonia in 339 B.C.E.
permanent trading posts set up all around the world like Al Mina (Modern Turkey)
trade influenced coinage, population movement, warfare and piracy
inspired Greek artists to further explore gem-cutting, jewelry making and metalworking
Impact of Interaction: Sparta
unlike Athens, trade was downplayed
used a different money system than rest of trading posts
defeated Athens at Peloponnesian War leaving Sparta as leading Greek Power
but also weakened
after war, all greece felt poverty
civil wars became common
golden age ended
Sparta was defeated by Epaminondas of Thebes
led to military decline
Impact of Technology, Economics and Demography: Athens
plague hit in 430 B.C.E.
25% of population died in 3 years (75-100,000 people)
Thucydides left documentation to assist future generations
killed Pericles, a great and necessary Athenian asset
contributed to loss of Peloponnesian War
after the plague, people began living in the moment and disobeyed laws
manufacturing was benefited by many types of artisans like blacksmiths and pottery-makers
slaves were used and received low wages
increased wealth of Athens
agriculture based on barley and wheat
olive oil was as valuable to the world then and petroleum gas is to society today, so olive trees brought prosperity
Impact of Technology, Economics and Demography: Sparta
unlike Athens, Sparta did not face the plague, but oligandria (decline of male citizens with civil rights)
advanced weaponry contributed to Spartan warfare
xihphos- short sword, easy to use in closed areas
javelin- 3 feet long, able to throw long range
dory- could use with one hand while shield in other
led Spartans to be a feared force and able to adept to the environment
garden vegetables were easily produced
horses were exported but also kept for Olympic Games
goats, sheep and cattle were common livestock like Athens
Social Structure and Gender Structure: Athens
2 main classes and slaves
citizens- free men born in Athens with both Athenian parents
only men
expected to serve in government, vote and perform military service
able to send male sons to school
could own property
metics- foreigners in Athens
expected to perform in military and could send sons to school
could not vote nor hold government positions
could not own property without permission
slaves- no influence, could not vote or partake in decision-making
Athenian women and metic women held the same position
were part of whatever group their husband or father was in
said to have no place outside the home
they could not partake in government, politics or vote, but could influence citizens
women slaves held the same position as slave men
Social Structure and Gender Structure: Sparta
3 basic classes
the spartiates proper- highest status
life dedicated to physical perfection and training
able to vote and own helots
thought to not perform manual labor
the perioeci- free men and women, but not citizens
able to move freely in and out of Sparta
could own land, become hoplites (foot soldier)
no political involvement and could not marry spartiates
helots- state owned surfs
lived to their own accommodation
were allowed to have their own families
not allowed to mix marriage with the Spartiates
Spartan women were physically and mentally educated
taught the arts, philosophy, war tactic and more
the alpha women of Greece
held most power and equality
must be healthy and fit, so strong children were birthed
married later in life
allowed to own land
able to fraternize in public
known to discuss political matter
Cultural and Intellectual Developments: Athens
the acropolis- cultural influence for the rest of the world
the Parthenon- temple dedicated to Athena, created by Phidias
polytheistic
believed in the 12 Gods of Olympus
thought they had human form, superhuman ability and ageless beauty
performed ceremonies, rituals and sacrifices to the gods
Homer published the Iliad and Odyssey
tragedy and comedic plays were performed to the public
Aristotle developed the study of zoology
Archimedes created the lever and pulley system
Athenians were the first to observe small particles as atoms
Hippocrates- wrote the Hippocratic Oath which is still used in modern medicine today
Cultural and Intellectual Developments: Sparta
Meneiaion- temple dedicated to Meneiaos and Helen
Amyklaion- most significant temple in Sparta; created during Golden Age
Persian Stoa- for win against Persia in 5th Century
sculptures made of bronze
Spartan sculptors' works made it to Olympus and Delphi as well as Sparta
held same beliefs of most Greek city-states
worshiped gods without question or hesitation
favored Apollo and Eres
Lacionian pottery emerged
held Gymnopaedia and Hyakinthia
both were favored festivals
Functions and Structure of States/ Political Identities: Athens
in 507 B.C.E.introduced direct democracy
direct democracy- the people themselves determine laws rather than elected officials
demos- any male citizens over 18 years of age
3 groups of government: ekklesia, boule and dikasteria
the ekklesia- assembly/governing body
any demos were allowed at meetings
made decisions about war, foreign policy and revised laws
made decisions with majority voting
the boule- council of 500; 50 from each Athenian tribe (there were 10)
met everyday, and did the "hands-on" work
supervised government workers and dealt with ambassadors from other city-states
main function- decide what goes to the ekklesia
positions on the boule decided by pure chance
this prevented corruption
dikasteria-popular courts
composed of 500 random males over the age of 30 (met everyday)
Aristotle claimed this group had most strength in democracy
due to the fact they held unlimited power
dikasteria participates paid wage for their work, so the job opportunity was available to all types of citizens
Functions and Structure of States/ Political Identities: Sparta
had oligarchy- group of few people having control over a country
3 groups of government: oligoi, gerousia, ephors
oligoi- 28 men over 68 years old and the two kings
created policy
gerousia-" counsel of elders"
designed proposals given to a assembly of free males
held limited power, but rejections were rare
ophors- "overseers" a board of 5
was the counter-balance for the influence of kings and gerousia
chosen from adult male citizens
used exceptional judicial/ punishment power
had the force to charge a king and imprison him
the two kings were enforced to rule in tangent and council
it was a form of check and balance
one king could lead Spartans in battle while the other stayed back and continued ruling the homeland
Ancient World Civilizations in Relation to Greece (terms of B.C.E)
Work Cited
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