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Alana Sta Ana

on 16 May 2016

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Transcript of Jainism

Sacred Texts

Jainism dates back to 6th century B.C.E in India
The name arose from the Jinas . Also known as twenty-four great teachers or Tirthankaras.
Mahavira was the last of the Tirthankaras.
He is considered the founder of Modern-day Jainism.
There is not a single founder.
The Tirthankara taught the truth and show the way to reach liberation. In other religions, a Tirthankara may be known as a

Mahavira was born into a royal family.
He spent multiple years meditating and fasting, he then reached enlightenment.
He spent the rest of his life teaching others and contributing to the spread of Jainism.
Hinduism became more popular during mid-19th century. Jainism lost most of their following. However, it came back in the 19th century.
Jain Emblem
Siddha and Truth
The Soul
Each jiva is an individual quite independent of other jivas.
Each jiva has been associated with matter, and involved in the cycle of birth and death

Jivas that achieved liberation are called Siddhas
Beings that are most like gods

Every jiva has the possibility of achieving liberation
The mechanism that determines the quality of life.

A logical and understandable way of making sense of good and evil

Is a physical substance
This substance is everywhere in the universe

8 types of Karma

Two ways of avoiding or getting rid of it
Jains believe that non-injury is the highest religion.

The path or Dharma that Mahavira advocated was one of strict asceticism, renunciation and moral cultivation

From the jewels we get the five abstinence

The Universe
Jains believe that the universe we perceive really exists and is not an illusion.
Two classes: jivas and ajivas

The Jain universe has five part

The universe moves through lengthy eras of time

Each cycle is divided into 6 ages, represented by spokes

In Jainism there are six essential rituals.
The attainment of equanimity (mental calmness and tranquility)
The adoration of the 24 Tirthankaras
Bowing down to the sadhus and sadhvis
Asking for forgiveness when one has violated any of the twelve minor vows.
The seperation of the soul from the body
The renunciation of certain activities
Within the Jain Community, there are two distinct religious groups: Digambaras and Svetambaras.
Also called sky clad

Digambara monks live their life completely naked.

Sky-clad Jains are found mainly in south west India, in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka
Mahavir Jayanti
Paryushana Parva
Also called white clad.

The monks and nuns of the Svetambara sect wear simple white garments.

Shvetambaras are found mainly in north west India, in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh.
Reincarnation & Deliverance
The 3 jewels
Women in Jainism
Believe in divine beings worthy of devotion.
Jinas are ideal state of an individual's soul.
Only 'gods' that exist are souls that are omniscient and perfect
Every being has the potential to become such a perfect soul.
There is no God to maintain the universe
There is no God of judgement
There is no God the ruler
There is no God who helps people
There is no God who demands worship
There is no God compared to whom each of us will always be inferior
The heavenly beings are not gods

-Deliverance achieved when free from
-Travels instantly to supreme abode.
-Lives forever in disembodied state of bliss with other liberated souls.
-After death, jiva goes to next body instantly.
-Quality of next life is determined by karma.
Right faith (Samyak darshana)
Right knowledge (Samyak jnana)
Right conduct (Samyak charitra)
Life of Mahavira
the founder of Jainism

A Jain community
forms in Mathura
Umasvati codifies Jain texts

Digambara Jainism by South Indian royalty

Decline of ascetic communities
Revival of asceticism. Many Jains emigrate to East Africa, the United Kingdom and North America

The texts containing the teachings of Mahavira are called the Agamas, and are scriptures of Svetambara Jainism.
Mahavira's disciples put his words into texts and memorised them to pass on to future generations.
The texts had to be memorized because Jain monks and nuns were not allowed to possess religious books.

The Twelve Minor Vows
Vow of Non-violence
Vow of Truthfulness
Vow of Non-stealing
Vow of Chastity
Vow of non-attachment
Vow of Limited Area of Activity
Vow of Limited Use of Consumable and Nonconsumable items
Vow of Avoidance of Purposeless Sins
Vow of Equanimity and Meditation for Limited duration
Vow of Activity within Limited Space and duration
Vow of Ascetic's life for a Limited Duration
Vow of Charity
Differences between Digambara and Svetambara
Raisi Pratikraman
Devasi Pratikraman
Pakshik Pratikraman
Choumasi Pratikraman
Samvatsari Pratikraman
Jain Wedding Rituals
Mangal Geet
Practice of Nudity

Digambaras live completely naked
Svetambaras wear white robes

Digambaras believe the practice of nudity = liberation
Svetambaras believe that practice of nudity is not essential to achieving liberation.
Liberation of Women
Digambaras believe that women cannot achieve moshka or liberation without first being reborn as men.
women posses clothing
women are harmful

Svetambaras do not agree with the Digambaras; instead they embrace religious equality of all creatures.
Tirthankara Mallinath
Svetambara consider Mallinath, the 19th Tirthankar as a female by name Mall

But the Digambaras state that Mallinath was a male.
Digambara: peacock feather duster

Svetamabara: simple white clothing, a begging bowl, a brush to remove insects from their path and books and writing materials.
Digambara images of tirthankaras have downcast eyes
Svetambara images have prominent staring eyes

Digambara images are plain (and always carved as naked figures)
Svetambara images are richly decorated

The Debate between Digambaras and Svetambaras
The JGI Group
was started by Founder Chairman Dr. Chenraj Roychand
Headquartered in Bangalore
represents 85 educational establishments
serves over 40,000 students and 4500 staff members
means “Place of Victory”

is considered the most holy of the Jain sacred mountains as most Tirthankaras attained nirvana meditating on the mountain.
Many Jain Festival are the same in terms of how they celebrate it; usually with fasting involved.
celebration of Mahavir's birth
occurs in March/April
The Festival of Forgiveness

occurs August/September
Digambaras equivalent to Svetambaras Paryushan Parva is Dash Lakshan Parva
Also know as "Mahavir Janma Kalyanak"
It is the Festival of Lights and celebrated through India
occurs around October/November
Also known as Deepavali where deep means "Lamp" and avali means "multiple"
Kartik Purnima
Jain pilgrims gather to the foothills of Shatrunjaya hills of Palitana Jain Temples in Gujarat.
occurs on October/November
Mauna Agyaras
A day of fasting and silence
A jain also meditates around the five supreme beings
occurs around November/December
Mauna means "silence"
Also "Ashtapad" and means "eight steps".
Spiritual center of the world
It is said that the first out of 24 Tirthankaras attained nirvana here.
4900 metres in height.

Jains distinguish holy places in two kinds:
Siddha-kshetra: there are primary ones known as the five sacred mountains
Mt. Abu
contains groups of Jain temples considered as one of the most beautiful.
Neminath the 22nd out of 24 Tirthankaras attained nirvana here and a temple dedicated to him is located.
1,031 metres.

famous tourist destination for the Dilwara Temples
there are five major sections/temples devoted to five Tirthankaras.
Unfortunately many of the original teachings of Mahavira have been lost.
As centuries passed some of the texts were forgotten. The distortion of the original texts caused much concern to the Jains.
Then came a particular disruption when a famine killed off many Jain monks, and with them the memory of the Jain texts.

Loss of the Scriptures
After the famine, monks and nuns of the Svetambara sect held several meetings to preserve the important Jain texts.
Jain monks and nuns are now permitted to possess religious books, so the Jain scriptures should no longer be in danger.
Preservation of the Scriptures

Jains don't regard Mahavira as the founder of their religion, so his words aren't of importance because he said them, but because they represent a series of beginningless, endless and fixed truths.
The nature of Jain Scripture
It is also called Mount Parsvanath after the 23rd Tirthankara as it was said that he attained nirvana here.
Also known as "Peak of Concentration"
Parsvanath Shikharji Temple is situated
Holy Places
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