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Solar Energy

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Jolene Millsap

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Solar Energy

By: Jolene Millsap Solar Energy How the Sun Releases photons. Who, where, when did this technology develop. By convention, solar cell efficiencies are measured under standard test conditions (STC) unless stated otherwise. STC specifies a temperature of 25 °C and an irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with an air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) spectrum. These conditions correspond to a clear day with sunlight incident upon a sun-facing 37°-tilted surface with the sun at an angle of 41.81° above the horizon.[2][3] This represents solar noon near the spring and autumn equinoxes in the continental United States with surface of the cell aimed directly at the sun. Under these test conditions a solar cell of 20% efficiency with a 100 cm2 (0.01 m2) surface area would produce 2.0 watts of power.
The efficiency of the solar cells used in a photovoltaic system, in combination with latitude and climate, determines the annual energy output of the system. For example, a solar panel with 20% efficiency and an area of 1 m² will produce 200 watts of power at STC, but it can produce more when the sun is high in the sky and will produce less in cloudy conditions and when the sun is low in the sky. In central Colorado, which receives annual insolation of 2200 kWh/m²,[4] such a panel can be expected to produce 440 kWh of energy per year. However, in Michigan, which receives only 1400 kWh/m²/yr,[5] annual energy yield will drop to 280 kWh for the same panel. At more northerly European latitudes, yields are significantly lower: 175kWh annual energy yield in southern England[6]. http://www.ted.com/talks/bill_gross_on_new_energy.html How did the first solar cells work? Video Clip How photons create an electric current? How are solar cells used for household electricity? The world’s increasing need for clean, renewable energy has given greater momentum to efforts to build the next generation of solar-powered devices for both small- and large-scale use. In a world where experts say humans need to reduce their carbon footprint, solar energy is a win-win proposition. Not only is it an inherently clean technology, but every megawatt of power produced by solar energy is one less that needs to be produced by fossil fuel.

Solar Power in History
Harnessing the sun for energy is not a new idea by any means. As early as the fourth century B.C.E. the Greek philosopher Socrates set forth a number of principles for passive solar design, including orienting buildings in ways to utilize the sun’s heat in the winter and to minimize its impact in the summer.

The first century AD saw the Romans expand the use of solar energy to heat their buildings and large central baths, thereby lessening the need to cut down forests for firewood. At the same time, the Romans also recognized that they could use glass, which had been invented recently, to build sun-warmed greenhouses.

In 1515, Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a parabolic mirror that could be used to concentrate the sun’s energy to heat a boiler. This type of device was put into use 2 centuries later, when a solar furnace was used to melt platinum at around 3200°F (1800°C).

It wasn’t until 1860, during the Industrial Revolution, that French mathematician Auguste Mouchout expressed strong concerns about Europe’s growing dependence on coal, and over the next decade he went on to develop the first solar motor. Mouchout’s device tracked the sun and focused its rays onto a boiler assembly to produce a small steam engine. Modifications and refinements to Mouchout’s work continued well into the twentieth century and laid the foundation for the largest commercial sector of solar energy today—concentrated solar power (CSP). There continues to be accelerated growth in CSP, with larger power-generating facilities routinely making news.

Meanwhile, the discoveries that led to the eventual conceptualization of photo-voltaic cells (PVCs)—what would become the other major means for producing solar energy—also began in the late nineteenth century. The foundation for these cells began with the discovery of the element selenium by Swedish chemists Jakob Berzelius and J. G. Gahn in 1818. A number of scientists found that one of the properties of selenium was its mysterious ability to produce small amounts of electricity when exposed to light. It wasn’t until 1904 that Albert Einstein wrote a paper explaining this photoelectric effect—work that led to his Nobel Prize nearly 20 years later. However, it would be another 50 years before Bell Labs produced a silicon solar cell capable of absorbing photons from the sun and directly converting these into electricity that could power everyday electrical devices. Photovoltaic technology has continued to evolve, from a variety of silicon-based cells to more efficient polycrystalline materials. In terms of small-scale application of solar energy, PVCs have become ubiquitous, seen on everyday devices like calculators, highway signs, and patio lights.

These two methods for harnessing the sun’s energy—concentrated solar power and photo-voltaic cells—make up today’s two major means for generating solar power. CSP is used primarily on a larger scale to generate megawatts of energy from big power facilities. Conversely, PVCs are mostly used in the continued growth of residential and small-scale applications, as evidenced by more and more solar panels sprouting from rooftops. The history of trying to harness these photons of sunlight The "photovoltaic effect" is the basic physical process through which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity. Sunlight is composed of photons, or particles of solar energy. These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a PV cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right through. Only the absorbed photons generate electricity. When this happens, the energy of the photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell (which is actually a semiconductor). With its newfound energy, the electron is able to escape from its normal position associated with that atom to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. By leaving this position, the electron causes a "hole" to form. Special electrical properties of the PV cell—a built-in electric field—provide the voltage needed to drive the current through an external load (such as a light bulb). When the N-type silicon (which releases free electrons) and P-type silicon (which attracts free electrons) come into contact, it causes the free electrons on the negative side to attach to the empty slots on the positive side. Since there are more electrons than available slots, they form a barrier with an electrical field separating the two sides. This field pushes the electrons and forces them to flow, causing an electrical current. In a solar cell, for example, photons from the sunlight cause a disruption in electrical neutrality by breaking apart the atomic bonds as they hit the silicon, freeing up electrons to partake in the electric flow. To attract a maximum amount of photons to react with silicon, an antireflective coating is applied to the shiny surface of the silicon. http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/photons-react-silicon-electric-current Cut your electricity bills: sunlight is free, so once you've paid for the initial installation your electricity costs will be reduced.

Get paid for the electricity you generate: the government’s Feed-In Tariffs pay you for the electricity you generate, even if you use it.

Sell electricity back to the grid: if your system is producing more electricity than you need, or when you can't use it, you can sell the surplus back to the grid.

Cut your carbon footprint: solar electricity is green, renewables energy and doesn't release any harmful carbon dioxide] or other pollutants. A typical home solar PV system could save over a tonne of carbon dioxide per year – that's more than 30 tonnes over its lifetime. PV cells are made from layers of semi-conducting material, usually silicon. When light shines on the cell it creates an electric field across the layers. The stronger the sunshine, the more electricity is produced. Groups of cells are mounted together in panels or modules that can be mounted on your roof.



The power of a PV cell is measured in kilowatts peak (kWp). That's the rate at which it generates energy at peak performance in full direct sunlight during the summer. PV cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Most PV systems are made up of panels that fit on top of an existing roof, but you can also fit solar tiles. The benefits of solar electricity How do solar panels(PV) cells work? http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generating-energy/Choosing-a-renewable-technology/Solar-panels-PV Other uses for solar cells How do they work now?? http://www.ehow.com/video_4951194_photon-produced_.html Solar cell efficiency Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion efficiency (η) of a solar cell is the percentage of the solar energy to which the cell is exposed that is converted into electrical energy.[1] This is calculated by dividing a cell's power output (in watts) at its maximum power point (Pm) by the input light (E, in W/m2) and the surface area of the solar cell (Ac in m2). Amount of sunlight that falls on a square meter of Earth in our latitudes. Federal and/or state requirements that govern a Public Utility District's mandate to buy the electricity from a house that produces solar electricity. State by state comparison of solar use (commercial vs. residential) Video Clip How Many kilowatts does a modern cell produce? How many kilowatts does the average American household use? How many kilowatts does the average American household use? The average household uses approximately 1000 kilowatt hours or 1 million watt-hours per month.

1.5kw is 1500 watts. 15x 100-watt bulbs. Most electric stoves can draw 10kw(100x light bulbs) if the oven and all top units are on highest setting during the initial warm-up. Electric clothes dryers have 4kw(40x bulbs) heaters that cycle on and off during a drying period that can last 30minutes to an hour if you overload. Electric water heaters may have one or 2 elements at 4kw each, but only one element is on at a time. It is the most consistent power-user in most households throughout the year. 3-ton central air systems will draw 3- 4kw including compressor and air circulation unit. The good thing is that electrical power is still relatively cheap considering the amount of work done. Here in SC it is about 10 cents per kwh plus a base rate of 9-10 dollars per month. A kilowatt hour is equal to using 1kw(10x 100watt bulbs) continuously for 1 hour. I would hate to pedal a bicycle generator for 10cents per hour and try to generate a Kwh. In spite of what you may have heard, look for ways to improve the high-power consuming devices first, then working through to computers, televisions, and other lower consuming devices. The average household uses approximately 1000 kilowatt hours or 1 million watt-hours per month.

1.5kw is 1500 watts. 15x 100-watt bulbs. Most electric stoves can draw 10kw(100x light bulbs) if the oven and all top units are on highest setting during the initial warm-up. Electric clothes dryers have 4kw(40x bulbs) heaters that cycle on and off during a drying period that can last 30minutes to an hour if you overload. Electric water heaters may have one or 2 elements at 4kw each, but only one element is on at a time. It is the most consistent power-user in most households throughout the year. 3-ton central air systems will draw 3- 4kw including compressor and air circulation unit. The good thing is that electrical power is still relatively cheap considering the amount of work done. Here in SC it is about 10 cents per kwh plus a base rate of 9-10 dollars per month. A kilowatt hour is equal to using 1kw(10x 100watt bulbs) continuously for 1 hour. I would hate to pedal a bicycle generator for 10cents per hour and try to generate a Kwh. In spite of what you may have heard, look for ways to improve the high-power consuming devices first, then working through to computers, televisions, and other lower consuming devices. How many kilowatts does the average American household use? The average household uses approximately 1000 kilowatt hours or 1 million watt-hours per month. 1.5kw is 1500 watts. 15x 100-watt bulbs. Most electric stoves can draw 10kw(100x light bulbs) if the oven and all top units are on highest setting during the initial warm-up. Electric clothes dryers have 4kw(40x bulbs) heaters that cycle on and off during a drying period that can last 30minutes to an hour if you overload. Electric water heaters may have one or 2 elements at 4kw each, but only one element is on at a time. It is the most consistent power-user in most households throughout the year. 3-ton central air systems will draw 3- 4kw including compressor and air circulation unit. The good thing is that electrical power is still relatively cheap considering the amount of work done. Here in SC it is about 10 cents per kwh plus a base rate of 9-10 dollars per month. A kilowatt hour is equal to using 1kw(10x 100watt bulbs) continuously for 1 hour. I would hate to pedal a bicycle generator for 10cents per hour and try to generate a Kwh. In spite of what you may have heard, look for ways to improve the high-power consuming devices first, then working through to computers, televisions, and other lower consuming devices. Photovoitaics (PV) is the direct conversion of light into electricity. Certain materials, like silicon, naturally release electrons when they are exposed to light, and these electrons can then be harnessed to produce an electric current. Several thin wafers of silicon are wired together and enclosed in a rugged protective casing or panel. PV panels produce direct current (DC) electricity, which must be converted to alternating current (AC) electricity to run standard household appliances. An inverter connected to the PV panels is used to convert the DC electricity into AC electricity. The amount of electricity produced ¡s measured in watts (W). A kilowatt (kW) is equal to 1,000 watts. A Megawatt (MW) is equal to 1,000,000 Watts or 1,000 Kilowatts. The amount of electricity used over a given period of time is measured in kilowatt-hours (KWh) The amount of energy from the sun that falls on Earth's surface is enormous. All the energy stored in Earth's reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas is matched by the energy from just 20 days of sunshine. Outside Earth's atmosphere, the sun's energy contains about 1,300 watts per square meter. About one-third of this light is reflected back into space, and some is absorbed by the atmosphere (in part causing winds to blow). By the time it reaches Earth's surface, the energy in sunlight has fallen to about 1,000 watts per square meter at noon on a cloudless day. Averaged over the entire surface of the planet, 24 hours per day for a year, each square meter collects the approximate energy equivalent of almost a barrel of oil each year, or 4.2 kilowatt-hours of energy every day. Deserts, with very dry air and little cloud cover, receive the most sun—more than six kilowatt-hours per day per square meter. Northern climates, such as Boston, get closer to 3.6 kilowatt-hours. Sunlight varies by season as well, with some areas receiving very little sunshine in the winter. Seattle in December, for example, gets only about 0.7 kilowatt-hours per day. It should also be noted that these figures represent the maximum available solar energy that can be captured and used, but solar collectors capture only a portion of this, depending on their efficiency. For example, a one square meter solar electric panel with an efficiency of 15 percent would produce about one kilowatt-hour of electricity per day in Arizona. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect.[1] Large solar power array Descriptions/Examples: Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 354 MW SEGS CSP installation is the largest solar power plant in the world, located in the Mojave Desert of California. Other large CSP plants include the Solnova Solar Power Station (150 MW) and the Andasol solar power station (150 MW), both in Spain. The over 200 MW Agua Caliente Solar Project in the United States, and the 214 MW Charanka Solar Park in India, are the world’s largest photovoltaic plants. Photovoltaic systems (PV system) use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. A system is made up of one or more solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, an AC/DC power converter (also known as an inverter), a racking system that holds the solar panels, and the interconnections and mounting for the other components. A small PV system may provide energy to a single consumer, or to an isolated device like a lamp or a weather instrument. Large grid-connected PV systems can provide the energy needed by many customers. Pictures: USA vs. Europe in the Solar power acquisition YOUR opinion of solar cells vs. wind power Wind power This stunning installation built on an old industrial site in Austin, TX is made up of 15 flower-like solar photovoltaic panels that soak up the sun's rays to generate a steady stream of renewable energy and provide shade. The flowers collect energy during the day to power the installation's blue LED lights at night. This amazing structure brings solar technology into a context of art, beauty and architecture. On a sunny day, the solar panels will be able to generate up to 10 MW of electrical power for the local community. In addition to generating renewable energy, the structure will also shelter visitors from the hot sun. Paint on your solar power. Solar paint entails a nanoscale mixture of photovoltaic components that can be painted or sprayed on to any number of surfaces to create cheap, efficient solar cells. Research on this technology is still in its infancy, but we love the huge potential for creative applications. Harnessing the sun for energy is not a new idea by any means. As early as the fourth century B.C.E. the Greek philosopher Socrates set forth a number of principles for passive solar design, including orienting buildings in ways to utilize the sun’s heat in the winter and to minimize its impact in the summer.

The first century AD saw the Romans expand the use of solar energy to heat their buildings and large central baths, thereby lessening the need to cut down forests for firewood. At the same time, the Romans also recognized that they could use glass, which had been invented recently, to build sun-warmed greenhouses.

In 1515, Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a parabolic mirror that could be used to concentrate the sun’s energy to heat a boiler. This type of device was put into use 2 centuries later, when a solar furnace was used to melt platinum at around 3200°F (1800°C).

It wasn’t until 1860, during the Industrial Revolution, that French mathematician Auguste Mouchout expressed strong concerns about Europe’s growing dependence on coal, and over the next decade he went on to develop the first solar motor. Mouchout’s device tracked the sun and focused its rays onto a boiler assembly to produce a small steam engine. Modifications and refinements to Mouchout’s work continued well into the twentieth century and laid the foundation for the largest commercial sector of solar energy today—concentrated solar power (CSP). There continues to be accelerated growth in CSP, with larger power-generating facilities routinely making news.

Meanwhile, the discoveries that led to the eventual conceptualization of photo-voltaic cells (PVCs)—what would become the other major means for producing solar energy—also began in the late nineteenth century. The foundation for these cells began with the discovery of the element selenium by Swedish chemists Jakob Berzelius and J. G. Gahn in 1818. A number of scientists found that one of the properties of selenium was its mysterious ability to produce small amounts of electricity when exposed to light. It wasn’t until 1904 that Albert Einstein wrote a paper explaining this photoelectric effect—work that led to his Nobel Prize nearly 20 years later. However, it would be another 50 years before Bell Labs produced a silicon solar cell capable of absorbing photons from the sun and directly converting these into electricity that could power everyday electrical devices. Photovoltaic technology has continued to evolve, from a variety of silicon-based cells to more efficient polycrystalline materials. In terms of small-scale application of solar energy, PVCs have become ubiquitous, seen on everyday devices like calculators, highway signs, and patio lights.

These two methods for harnessing the sun’s energy—concentrated solar power and photo-voltaic cells—make up today’s two major means for generating solar power. CSP is used primarily on a larger scale to generate megawatts of energy from big power facilities. Conversely, PVCs are mostly used in the continued growth of residential and small-scale applications, as evidenced by more and more solar panels sprouting from rooftops. It has been said that our Solar System really consists of only three things: the Sun, Jupiter, and assorted rubble. With that in mind, we'll start our snacking tour of the Solar System with the part of it that gives it its name: the Sun.
You may have noticed that the Sun has two overwhelmingly obvious characteristics: it's bright, and it's hot. These two things are related. The source of the Sun's heat wasn't understood until the middle of the 20th century, when nuclear fusion was first being mathematically analyzed. Although even today we do not completely understand what is happening inside the Sun, we have a pretty good grasp of it. Basically, the nuclei of hydrogen atoms are compressed together so hard that they fuse to form helium atoms (the actual process is quite a bit more complicated, but fusion to helium is the end result). This releases a tiny bit of energy. At least, tiny when you only do it once. But the Sun converts millions of tons of hydrogen into helium in its core every second, and so a lot of energy is released. This energy is in the form of photons, or light. These photons have to work their way out from the core of the Sun to the surface. That's a distance of 700,000 kilometers, or almost twice the distance from the Earth to the Moon, so you might expect it takes a while. You might not expect just how long it does take. The center of the Sun is extremely dense, and a photon can only travel a tiny distance before running into another hydrogen nucleus. It gets absorbed by that nucleus and the re-emitted in a random direction. If that direction is back towards the center of the Sun, the photon has lost ground! It will get re-absorbed, and then re-emitted, over and over, trillions of times. The path it follows is called a "random walk" (or sometimes a "drunkard's walk"). Eventually it does make its way to the surface, but it takes a long time: the average photon may bounce around inside the Sun for 40,000 years!* So the light you see from the Sun is really very old. The photons were first emitted long before our civilization began! is a type of building development and also a regulatory process. As a building development, it is a designed grouping of both varied and compatible land uses, such as housing, recreation, commercial centers, and industrial parks, all within one contained development or subdivision. Tool Description: The term Planned Unit Development (PUD) is used to describe
a type of development and the regulatory process that permits a
developer to meet overall community density and land use goals
without being bound by existing zoning requirements. PUD is
a special type of fl oating overlay district which generally does
not appear on the municipal zoning map until a designation is
requested. This is applied at the time a project is approved and
may include provisions to encourage clustering of buildings,
designation of common open space, and incorporation of a variety
of building types and mixed land uses. A PUD is planned and built
as a unit thus fi xing the type and location of uses and buildings
over the entire project. Potential benefi ts of a PUD include more
effi cient site design, preservation of amenities such as open space,
lower costs for street construction and utility extension for the
developer and lower maintenance costs for the municipality. Common Uses: Urban Redevelopment
Redesigns for older urban areas face many challenges. Traditional
zoning does not have the fl exibility to address the need for
mixed uses for buildings, changes in building setbacks, nonmotorized transportation, environmental protection and possible
brownfi eld regulations all within a confi ned space. The area for
redevelopment is planned all at once so land uses complement
each other. Using a PUD allows for innovative uses of spaces and
structures to achieve planning goals. Residential: Commercial: Solar Stores in Port Townsend The installation and use on a commercial structure of a solar photovoltaic energy system or a solar thermal energy system is an outright permitted use in any zone in which commercial structures are an allowed use. The installation and use on a residential structure of a solar photovoltaic energy system or a solar thermal energy system is an outright permitted use in any zone in which residential structures are an allowed use. Andy founded Power Trip Energy in September 2002 and handles site evaluations, system design, and administration. As a long-time resident of the Olympic Peninsula, his love for our community and environment drove him to create a company to work with developers in order to make the inevitable growth as sensible as possible. Andy grew up in Port Townsend and graduated from PTHS in 1986. He started college at WSU, then moved to California, and received degrees in Marine Biology and Zoology from Humboldt State University in Arcata, CA. During and after college, his career was oriented towards technical sales, designing and selling computer network systems through the early 90's, and later directing sales and marketing for a commercial mill working company. Andy believes that solar power is the best way for most people to create electricity, and that compared to hydro-carbon-derived energy, the environmental benefits are tremendous, and socially, the benefits of individual power production are emancipating. Andy sees that the benefits of developing localized power sources are important to the long-term health of the local economy. QUESTIONS????????? Wind energy is a renewable energy source.

Wind energy is a pollution-free energy source.

Wind energy is very abundant energy source in many parts of the USA.

Wind energy is mostly used to generate electricity.

Wind energy is mostly used renewable energy source.

Wind energy unlike some thought very economically competitive.

Wind energy is one of the lowest-priced renewable energy sources.

Wind energy is the fastest growing segment of all renewable energy sources.

Wind energy is very exploited in Germany where Germany leads the way with 8750 MW of electrical energy produced from wind energy.

Wind energy is more exploited in Europe than in America, because of favorable climate conditions and because of USA traditional relying on fossil fuels.

Wind energy basically transformed form of the Sun's energy.

Wind energy has no fuel expenditures.
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