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The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration

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Ben Hemsley

on 16 March 2015

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Transcript of The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration

The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Exploration
Chapter 16 Section 1 and 2
1500s - 1600s
The Main Idea:
The Scientific Revolution challenged and changed the way people thought about the world. Technological improvements lead to exploration and fostered the growth of a new economy.
The Story Continues....
In the early 1600's Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes published a novel called "Don Quixote de la Mancha" (Mr. Quixote of Mancha, Central Spain). It tells the story of an aging man stuck in the myths of the past. This humorous tale is a reflection of the changing world of the Age of Exploration, a time when people were leaving the legends of old for a reality based in science.
Strauss, Don Quixote
New Hong Kong Symphony
From Magic to Science
Until well into the 1500s, many average Europeans saw little difference between science and magic. This is despite the efforts of people like Leonardo Da Vinci.
For example...
Alchemy
Alchemists used spells and magic formulas to try to change any one substance into gold.


Why would this skill be desired?
Astrology
Astrologists believed that the position of the stars in the sky influence human life.
"Hey, what's your sign?!"
Resurfaced in the late 1960s.
20th Century tidbit:
Fortune Telling
Fortune tellers led people to believe that they could predict the future with an array of items including glass balls, crystals and tarot cards.
Pick a card, any card!
...just not "death"
The Main Idea here....
People relied on religion and nearly 2,000 year old Greek teachings from Aristotle to explain the happenings of nature.
People who use religion and these teachings were known as
natural philosophers
.
The spirit of the Renaissance enters the picture...
The spirit of the Renaissance, the curiosity in science, arts and humanities, encourages further scientific questions, investigations and eventually discoveries in Science.

Essentially, the educated begin to outwardly question these old beliefs and discover new ways to describe the events that take place in our natural world.
With the inquisition largely over, and the new reforms in the Church, many people felt freer to question these long held beliefs and practice.
This is how we get the Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution
During the Era of the Scientific Revolution people began to use experiments and mathematics to understand the natural events of daily life. The rising of the sun, the existence of the moon and stars, the weather, earthquakes and more...

These trailblazers in Science were no longer content with describing the events of the world through religion or magic happenings.
What role did the Renaissance play in the development of Science?
People to Know
Nicolaus Copernicus
Founder of Modern Astronomy
Rejected the 100 AD astronomer Ptolemy's idea that the Earth was at the center of the Universe and therefore, the Sun and the planets, revolved around the Earth. This is known as
geo-centric theory.

Why would Ptolemy think that?
Copernicus rejected this theory and felt that the Earth as well as the other planets, revolved around the stationary Sun. This is known as
heliocentric theory
.
Copernicus publishes his theory (ie: not yet proven) in 1543.
People to know (continued)
Galileo Galilei
Galileo, an Italian scientist, had a new invention called the telescope (a Dutch invention) that allowed him to see into space. Galileo drew what he saw and these drawings and formulates an accurate view of the Universe which he publishes in 1632. In this publication, Galileo proves Copernicus' heliocentric theory.


The church forbids Galileo from printing his book, and even blocks the press from publishing it.
The Church's Response:
Why would the church want to block this substantial information?
People to know (continued...)
Sir Issac Newton
Takes the heliocentric theory even further by publishing his own book which explains, and proves that not only does the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun, but he proves how through the discussion of
gravity
.
Gravity is simply what holds the universe together.
The result
Europeans begin to see the universe and all that is in it as a kind of mechanical clock. Someone (God?) wound up the clock, and it has since moved according to nature.
Ah ha !
Earth Science isn't the only branch of study to see massive changes during the Scientific Revolution....
Anatomy
Fueled by the drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci, scientists begin to deeply study the structure of the human body leading to medical improvements.
Andreas Vesalius
published a seven-volume book called "On the Fabric of the Human Body" complete with illustrations.
Andreas Vesalius drawing of the skeleton from posterior
Body Worlds
Chemistry
Joseph Priestly discovers the element Oxygen in 1774
We need this, right?
The big picture
Many important scientific advances take place in a brief amount of time because of new developments in communication. Communication helps to spread knowledge, discoveries and exchanging of ideas.
The Printing Press
Tidbit: Who had the printing press first?
China: 1040s
Korea: 1200s
Europe: 1450s
The European printing press is credited to the German printer
Johannes Gutenberg
The Printing Press
allows for multiple publications through moveable parts.
Communication
The Even Bigger Picture
Scientific advances effect trade and the balance of political power in Europe.
I know what you're thinking.

"There's no connection"
But that's simply not true!
Governments begin to offer awards to anyone who could invent a device for measuring longitude properly to help ships sail more efficiently, and thus build one's government more power.
Why would Europeans want to sail more?
Remember the crusades and WHY the Europeans wanted to start the crusades?
The Europeans wanted to build better trade routes with the East, whose goods were highly desired.
That didn't work out so well on land, so why not try a sea route?
It's faster!
We begin to see improvements in
particularly:
The Compass
Mapmaking
Navigation
Ships
and the
astrolabe
Why would governments want relations, and even to own far away lands?
Mercantilism takes hold
Nations begin to adopt the belief of
Mercantilism
, or, the idea that a country's government should do all it can to increase a country's wealth.
Wealth was, of course, measured by the amount of gold and silver a country had. The Europeans of this time believed that the world had a finite amount of gold and silver, and therefore one's country must take another country's "wealth" in order to increase their own wealth. OR....
A country could mine for gold and silver elsewhere.... perhaps a
colony
?

Sound familiar?
but there's
other ways
to gain
wealth

Trade, Taxes and Tarrifs - oh my!
Trade: Exchanging goods (
exports
) with another country

Sometimes, taxes, or small fees, are placed upon these trade items that enter into one's country (
import
) We call these fees
tarrifs
.

The 13 American Colonies had
resources
that England could not, or did not want to produce.
Therefore, Europeans begin to branch out from the mainland. This is why we call this time period, the
age of exploration
.

Effects
European Languages are spread
European ideas, customs and religions spread
Europeans become more
cosmopolitan
Unfortunately mass exploitation of indigenous peoples
Destroying (be it voluntary or involuntary) of some indigenous societies
Colonial uprisings

Aztecs - Sad example of exploration gone very right for the Spanish, but very wrong for the Aztecs
Did we have an Age of Exploration here in the United States?
Q4 H7 T1 &2
Did we have an Age of Exploration here in the United States? When? How?
Was Colonization ultimately good or bad for the world?
Columbus
I LOVE Horrible Histories!
Aztec Empire
Modern Day Mexico
Rich in Gold and Silver
Fierce Warriors
Strong Empire with Strong
religious beliefs
defeated by the Spanish
conquistadores under
Hernán Cortés in 1521
fully ripe avocado = 1 bean
large tomato = 1 bean
turkey egg = 3 beans
pumpkin = 4 beans
small rabbit = 30 cacao beans
turkey hen = 100 cacao beans
0.62kg gold statue = 250 beans
ones own child sells for about 600 cacao beans.
The Legend of El Dorado
"The Golden One"
Wealth, and gold, drives explorers onward
Europeans believed that somewhere in the New World there was a place of immense wealth known as El Dorado.
Most tales have some truth, even this one...
El Dorado - Based in truth about a native people who
lived in the mountains of South America, (perhaps Modern day Columbia)
The Musica people lived here
When the musica chose a new chieftain, they held a ceremony at Lake Guatavita.
The new chieftain was covered in gold dust, and jewels were thrown into the lake to appease the god that lived underneath.
The Spanish hear rumors of the Musica tribe, and their chieftain, which the Spanish call EL DORADO or "The Gilded One"
They decide to find El Dorado
Arrival....
They find gold along the coast, so they assume the rich city must be somewhere in the interior.
They spend years searching....
They never find it.
Consolation Prize!
The Spanish DO find Lake Guatavita
And attempt to drain it.
They find little more than a few gold pieces. Most of the treasure was too far on the bottom to reach.
This lust for gold, which was not as important to the Musica as it was to the Spanish, nearly destroyed the Musica's natural landscape.
So instead, the Spanish decide to colonize the area...
Mercantilism, Exploration and Colonialism leads to the rise of large European
Empires
.

Spain
Portugal
Netherlands
England

All have their rise and fall...
Different types of
Monarchies

Constitutional Monarchy
Vs.
Divine Right Monarchy

Mercantilism, War, Trade and a Divine Right Monarchy won't work well for France.

That's all for now!
Full transcript