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Chickering's Theory of Identity Development
Transcript of Chickering's Theory of Identity Development
and Identity in 1969. Based on research
1959 and 1965
at Goddard College Director of the
Project on Student Development
in Small Colleges from 1964 to 1969 Chickering's Theory "vectors of development " because each have a direction and magnitude "Major highways for journeying towards individuation." Students move through vectors at different rates and may deal with issues from more than one vector at a time Recycling: Students often reexamining issues associated with vectors they had already worked through Vectors build on each
other leading to greater complexity, stability and integration Not rigidlly sequential and not intended to be in stages. The Seven Vectors Developing Competence
-physical and manual skills
-interpersonal Intellectual-acquiring knowledge and skill related to a subject. development of "intellectual, cultural and aesthetic sophistication." gaining skills in critical thinking and reasoning Athletic and recreational activities, attention to wellness and involvement in artistic and manual activities Communication, leadership and working effectively with others Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence Increased emotional independence defined as "freedom from continual and pressing needs for reassurance, affection, or approval from others"
Self-direction, problem-solving, mobility
Recognize and accept the importance of interdependence-awareness of their interconnectedness with others
Vector previously named "devoloping autonomy Managing Emotions
Developing the ability to recognize and accept emotions as well as to appropiately express and control them
Original theory focused on agression and sexual desire
Recent work includes a range such as anxiety, depression, anger, shame, guilt, caring, optimism and inspiration Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships Developing intercultural and interpersonal tolerance and appreciation of differences as well as the capacity fo healthy and lasting intimate relationships with partners and close friends
"Involve the ability to accept individuals for who they are, to respect differences, and to appreciate commonalities." Establishing Identity Builds on developing mature interpersonal relationships
Acknowledges differences in identity development based on gender, ethnic background, and sexual orientation
Identity includes comfort with body and appearance, comfort with gender and sexual orientation, a sense of one's social and cultural heritage, a clear self-concept and comfort with one's roles and lifestyle, a secure sense of self in light of feedback from significant others, self-acceptance and self-esteem and personal stability and intergration Developing Purpose Developing clear vocational goals, making meaningful committments to specific personal interests and activities, and establishing strong interpersonal committments
Intentionally making and staying with decisions, even in the midst of opposition
Lifestyle and family influences affect the decision-making and goal-setting processes Developing Integrity "Three sequential but overlapping stages"
-developing congruence Environmental Influences Institutional Objectives clear specific objectives to which personnell pay attention to and use to guide the development of program and services have a powerful impact
Influence emphasis given to each vector Institutional Size Significant participation in campus life and satisfaction with the college experience essential to development Student-Faculty Relationships Extensive and varied interactions among facutly and students facilitates development
Students need to see faculty in a variety of situations involving different roles and responsibilities, which gives perception of faculty as real people who are accessible and interested in them beyond the classroom
Components of positive student-faculty: accessibility, authenticity, knowledge about students, and the ability to communicate with students Teaching Should involve active learning student-faculty interaction, timely feedback, high expectations, and respect for individual learning difference
Strategies should affect cognitive development in the form of active thinking and integration of ideas
Encourage interdependence, cooperation, and interpersonal sensitivity Friendships and Student Communities "Student's most important teacher is often another student."
Meaningful friendships and diverse student communities where shared interests exist and significant action occur encourage development along all 7 vectors Student Development
Programs and Services Collaboration by faculty and student affairs
professionals are necessary to provide developmental
programs and services
Chickering and Risser "recommend[ed] that administrators of student development programs and services redefine themselves as educations and refer to themselves as 'student development professionals'
Advocates for the "education of the whole student" Three Admonitions Intergration of Work and Learning Collaborative relationships among business, the community, and institutions of higher education that will maximize the developmental potential of work and volunteer experience Recognition and Respect for Individual Differences Educators must be cognizant of the different backgrounds and needs of their students and adjust their interactions and interventions to address these differences. Acknowledgement of Cyclical Nature of Learning
and Development Involves periods of differentiation and integration, equilibrium and
New experiences and challenges are opportunities for new perspectives and
more complex understandings to occur
Chickering and Reisser warned that "signs of discomfort and upset are not necessarily negative. On the contrary, they often signal that developmentally fruitful encounters are occuring , that stimuli for learning at work." Research: Since its introduction in 1969, Chickering's
theory has generated as much research as
any other work in the field of student
development. Research has centered on..... Assessment: Assessment is not easy in
psychosocial development. Cognitive development also interacts
with psychosocial development Psychosocial development is influenced by
the environmental context in which it occurs. Validation of the theory:
Is Chickering's theory valid? White & Hood (1989): Examined the validity of Chickering's vectors of
development by administering the six Iowa instruments plus an objective
measure of cognitive development to 225 students.
Mather & Winston (1998): Investigated only autonomy development (as described
in the revised theory by Chickering & Reisser (1993)).
Single institutional study with 247 student participants given the STDLI,
resulted in partial support for Chickering's theory (Foubert, Nixon, Sisson, &
Martin (2000) found some support for Chickering's hypothesized relationship
between college experiences and psychosocial development. Research on Specific
Student Populations: Women's Development: Researchers have studied the applicability of Chickering's theory to women. Found that women's development differs from men's development, paritcularly regarding the importance of interpersonal relationships in fostering other aspects of development. Taub & McEwen (1991): Development of mature interpersonal relationships
may begin earlier for women than for men, while develpment of autonomymay occur later than Chickering suggested. Longitudinal study by Blackhurst (1995): Found support for this
argument. Female college students also score higher on intimacy than do male college students.
Foubert et al., (2005) African American women and African American men: Longitudinal study over 4
years of college. (Hood, Riahinejad, & White, 1986.) Development of Students from various Racial/Ethnic Groups: Many question the
applicability of Chickering's theory for students who are not from white, middle-class backgrounds. Development of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual students: Factors related to Development Relationships Among
Forms of Development: Applications: Programming: CHICKERING'S MODEL IS PARTICULARLY EFFECTIVE IN DEVELOPING OVERALL
PROGRAM PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES. EXAMPLE: Individual Interactions: AN AWARENESS OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES REPRESENTED
BY THE VECTORS CAN AID STUDENT AFFAIRS PROFESSIONALS IN THEIR INTERACTIONS
WITH STUDENTS ON AN INDIVIDUAL LEVEL. EXAMPLE: Environmental Interventions: CHICKERING INTRODUCED THE IDEA OF A RESIDENTIAL LEARNING
CONTRACT AT GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY. AS PART OF THE APPLICATION PROCESS, STUDENTS WER ASKED TO OUTLINE THE LEARNING OUTCOMES THEY WISHED TO ACHIEVE BY LIVING IN UNIVERSITY HOUSING. IS THIS REALLY IMPORTANT? Critique & Future Directions: The End!
By: TAKESHIA BROWN & SHANNON BONVILLE THE ROLE OF ASSIMILATION IN RELATION TO A DOMINANT
CULTURE, ACCULTURATION, AND CULTURAL AWARENESS IN
DEVELOPMENT MUST BE CONSIDERED (MCEWEN, ROPER,
BRYANT, AND LANGA (1990) AND GIBBS (1974). FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS:
DEVELOPING INDEPENDENCE AND AUTONOMY--OCCURS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF
AFFILIATION--PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT
FAMILY AND EXTENDED FAMILY--EXERT A PERVASIVE INFLUENCE. RELIGION, SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT, AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALSO TAKE ON SIGNIFICANCE FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS. ALMOST NO RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE TO EXAMINE THE SUITABILITY
OF CHICKERING'S THEORY FOR NONHETEROSEXUAL POPULATIONS. IN A SMALL STUDY, LEVINE AND BAHR (1989) FOUND EVIDENCE THAT
DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL IDENTITY MAY RETARD OTHER COMPONENTS OF
PSYCHOSOCIALDEVELOPMENT FOR GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL STUDENTS. LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL STUDENTS MAY BE AT A DISADVANTAGE
IN RESOLVING THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF THE FIRST 4 VECTORS
(DEVELOPING COMPETENCE, MANAGING EMOTIONS, MOVING THROUGH
AUTONOMY TOWARD INTERDEPENDENCE, AND DEVELOPING MATURE
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS), LEADING TO DIFFICULTIES IN RESOLVING
MORE ADVANCED TASKS (FASSINGER, 1998A). CONFIDENCE IS SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATED WITH
ACADEMIC SATISFACTION AND CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE. INVOLVEMENT ON CAMPUS IS ALSO RELATED TO PSYCHOSOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT. FIRST YEAR STUDENTS WHO REMAIN ON CAMPUS
ON WEEKENDS REPORT HIGHER LEVELS OF AUTONOMY THAN STUDENTS
WHO LEAVE CAMPUS (FOX, SPOONER, UTTERBACK, & RENTZ, 1994). INVOLVEMENT IS NOT ALWAYS POSITIVELY RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT.
HOWEVER, STUDENTS WHO PARTICIPATED IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
SCORED LOWER THAN NONATHLETES IN REGARD TO EDUCATIONAL PLANS,
CAREER PLANS, AND MATURE RELATIONSHIPS (SOWA & GRESSARD, 1983.) HIGER LEVELS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
SEEM TO BE RELATED TO HIGHER LEVELS
OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT. LONG, SOWA, AND NILES (1995) FOUND A CONNECTION
BETWEEN HAVING MADE A CAREER DECISION AND
ACADEMIC AUTONOMY, SENSE OF PURPOSE, VOCATIONAL
IDENTITY, AND OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION. CHICKERING AND REISSER'S REVISIONS CHICKERING'S THEORY LACKS SPECIFICITY AND PRECISION. MORE RESEARCH NEEDED TO TEST THE VALIDITY OF CHICKERING'S
THEORY MORE RESEARCH NEEDED ON THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF AGE,
GENDER, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, RACE, CULTURE, AND ASPECTS
OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.