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The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

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charles finch

on 18 March 2011

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Transcript of The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes The Rise of Dictators By 1939, only two major European states -- France and Great Britain—remained democratic states Italy, the Soviet Union, Germany, and many other European countries adopted dictatorial regimes
The Rise of Dictators What is a Totalitarian state? Totalitarian state – government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens Massive amounts of propaganda were prevalent
Totalitarian regimes were led by a single leader, and a single political party
Fascism in Italy Fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by dictatorial ruler Benito Mussolini established the first fascist government in Europe
Rise of Fascism Rise of Fascism Italy suffered severe economic problems post WWI
(Great Depression) Mussolini led his own terrorist group known as the Blackshirts He attacked all socialist and communist movements in Italy with force
Many Italians feared that Communism would spread to their country like it did in Russia The people were quick to embrace Mussolini because of his patriotic and nationalistic ideals Mussolini and his fascists said, “Either we are allowed to govern, or we will seize power” Mussolini was then appointed prime minister of Italy
Mussolini could make all laws
Police were given unrestricted authority to arrest or jail anyone for either nonpolitical or political crimes The Fascists outlawed all other political parties
The Fascist State (Fascist Italy) The Fascist State (Fascist Italy) Mussolini’s secret police were called the OVRA
Italian Fascists tried to control all forms of mass media
Newspaper, radio, and film
Media spread propaganda
Organized the youth to conform them at an early age
Tried to create fit, disciplined, and war-loving children
Mussolini did recognize the Catholic Church as the official Church of Italy
During Mussolini’s reign, he had an admirer and student named……….Adolph Hitler Mussolini would never quite reach the historical marks of Adolph Hitler of Germany and Joseph Stalin of Russia/Soviet Union A New Era in the Soviet Union Communist government was seizing grain from peasants
Peasants began to hoard food
Mass famine spread throughout the country
All of Russia grew sick of Lenin
Lenin’s New Economic Policy Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of the New Economic Policy (NEP)
-It was a modified version of the old capitalist system Peasants could sell their produce; small stores could be privately operated
In 1922, Russia was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union)
The Rise of Stalin Lenin died in 1924
Struggle for power amongst the Politiburo (leading policy making body of the Communist Party)
Stalin vs. Leon Trotsky Stalin wins out, Trotsky was expelled from the party and fled to Mexico Trotsky would later be murdered in 1940
Five-Year Plans Stalin ended the NEP, and began the Five-Year Plans
These plans set strict economic goals from agriculture to industry to military
The First Five Year Plan called for increase in capital goods (goods devoted to the production of other goods, such as heavy machines) Working and living conditions were awful
Propaganda that stressed the need for sacrifice to create the new socialist state was widespread to keep workers content
Collectivization, where government owned all the land and peasants worked it, began
Families by the MILLIONS were forced into collectivization
Cost of Stalin's Programs Stalin removed all Old Bolsheviks from his party
Stalin purged army officers, diplomats, union officials, party members, intellectuals, and numerous ordinary citizens
Millions were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia and never returned Authoritarian States in the West Goal of authoritarian regimes is to preserve the existing social order Eastern Europe Parliament failed in most Eastern European states for many reasons
-Little tradition of political democracy
*Mostly rural and agrarian
-Many citizens were illiterate
>Ethnic conflicts were common
>Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia,
Yugoslavia,Romania, Bulgaria,
and Hungary would adopt
authoritarian regimes
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