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naturalism

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Ivy Ventura

on 19 July 2011

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Transcript of naturalism

NATURALISM Ivy T. Ventura Definition
Aims
Types
Content
Agencies and Organization
Methods Definition
the most influential movement of the 18th century
stands for education in accordance with NATURE and HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
return to the natural as opposed to all that is artificial
philosophically opposite idealism JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778) Emile (or On Education) Aims Types was a French writer and composer born in Geneva, Switzerland.
his political philosophy heavily influenced the French Revolution.
his novel Emile is a seminal treatise on the education of the whole person is a treatise on the nature of education and the nature of man
considered by Rousseau as the most important of his writings
tackles how education can best serve a person through a developmental process
discusses how man can retain his "innate human goodness" in a corrupting society. preservation of the natural goodness and virtue of the individual
establish the formation of a society based upon the recognition of the natural individual rights
to free man from the artificialities and restraints of human society Everything is good as it leaves the hands of its Author ; everything degenerates in the hands of man. Rousseau believes that man, as a natural being has innate goodness; but became evil through contact with society. Rousseau's Theory of Learning:
emphasis on the need to be free to develop according to his own natural impulses.
all restrictions and discipline should be done away with so that the child could grow and enjoy the things that interested him. Training should not be for a definite vocation and a definite social position or class.
Naturalism stood for a democratic and universal type of education as it is a basic natural right to be educated in the same way. the child should have the freedom to grow without being confined or coddled but must be allowed the utmost freedom of limb and voice.
a child should be allowed to run, jump, climb and swim in the open country. Physical Education Health Training clothing should be loose and the child should be exposed to a reasonable amount of heat, cold and danger.
moral training through natural punishment. Intellectual Education development of:
sense of discrimination
free expression
acquisition of knowledge through natural curiosity Religious Education Religion was postponed until the child could understand what was bad through nature and not through rituals and dogmas. Content anything that consists of activities and interests manifested by the child in the process of growing up.
education was to be natural unfolding of the child's potential to meet his natural needs. Agencies and Organization Instead traditional 3 R’s, Rousseau favored the informal exercises of the senses, the muscles, and the tongue Natural Stages of Development
Infancy
Childhood
Boyhood
Adolescence Methods Three ModernPrinciples of Teaching Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe was the only desirable textbook because it portrayed the natural conditions of simple living. For Rousseau, a typical child was like his character Emile who grew up expressing his own physical needs, as motivated by curiosity. The development of the senses was obtained through counting, measuring distances, weighing objects and singing. To develop practical judgment, agriculture and carpentry were encouraged. At fifteen, Emile was exposed to human nature in hospitals, in prisons, and in workshops. As Emile grew older, he studied geography and astronomy, not from books but from nature. As Emile approached maturity, he took up the physical sciences, languages, philosophy and religion, not so much for the content but to make him social-minded to be able to contribute to the improvement of the society. Rousseau on WOMEN:
Sophie - a charcter in Emile, was a model woman
She has no individuality
Her duty was to please man and bear strong children.
She was trained in domestic work, morals and religion and trained never to think for herself. Naturalism emphasized the duty of parents in the education of a child by protecting him from artificial society.
Parents should help develop the child’s inherent qualities.
Education should follow the natural stages of development of the child. Infancy Stage Childhood Stage Boyhood Stage Adolescence Stage The child should be the CENTER of the education process.
The child in nature should determine the processes and techniques of teaching.
Education should never hamper nor restraint the child’s natural capacities and interests. the principle of pupil activity the principle of growth the principle of individualization a pupil should not be subjected to any regimen - he is to grow naturally nothing can be done for the pupil, if he could do it himself Each child should be allowed to develop according to his own nature. Despite one's limitation, nature will find a way to make a child learn in the process. from birth to five years sense of perception growth of the body motor activities the child learns what he could do or could not do the child had to be free from restraint and the body hardened by actual participation in nature from five to twelve laissez-faire approach, "do nothing and allow nothing to be done" avoid books and emphasize games let experience be the only teacher the child should recognize the usefulness of knowledge from twelve to fifteen education by human agencies should begin the child’s natural desire to learn should develop fifteen to twenty a perception of human relations arises Sex impulses appeared to be strong at this stage and reason had to check the sexual desires and channel them to more desirable outlets. develop an ethical point of view strive for spiritual inspiration cultivate the aesthetic side of his life
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