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The Evolution of the Wheel
Transcript of The Evolution of the Wheel
How did the availability of resources impact the evolution of the wheel? Mesopotamian wheels were made of two wooden planks, not simple woooden disks. WHY? 4500-3300 BCE WOODEN WHEEL SPOKED WHEEL Europeans 1500 BCE IRON TIRE PNEUMATIC
TIRE Because: A horizontal slice of a trunk does not have the structural strength to support weight without splitting; rounded pieces of longitudinal boards are required to utilize the strength of the tree's grain. 1 Wikipedia:Wheel Wooden wheels (sometimes called plank wheels) were used for wagons and chariots. The first bicycles were nicknamed "boneshakers" because the combination of wood (and later on metal wheels) and cobbled streets of the day made an extremely uncomfortable ride. www.historium.com http://library.thinkquest.org/
Owl's Head Transportation Museum website 17,000-15,000 BCE The spoked wheel was invented out of necessity, apparently independently by Eastern and Western civilizations. Why?
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/wheel.htm Egyptians 2200 BCE 1000-500 BCE 1802 WIRE WHEEL George Cayley, aeronautical engineer was the first to invent wire spoked wheels, which was based on tension rather than compression. 1847 Robert William Thomson first patented pneumatic tires in 1847. It did not catch on until the late 1800's. Transition from Bronze to Iron Age Tin became started becoming scarce around 1800 BC,hence the transition into using iron for tools and weapons, including wheel rims. Ancient covers for wheels like wood and leather, known today as tires, offered minimal amount of protection to the wooden wheel. Iron wheels or iron-rimmed wheels had wooden spokes, with iron rims or tires. It was used extensively in Eastern and Western cultures well into the 19th century. http://www.ohtm.org/wheel.html
Owl's Head Transportation Museum website 1. To make the wheels lighter and
2.to use less materials (wood was becoming scarce). LOG ROLLER WHEELS Iron replaced rails and wheels in 1776. Horse drawn carriages were still the norm, until the invention of the first steam locomotive by Richard Trevithick in 1804. The iron was shrink-fitted into the wooden wheel to strengthen the wheel and prevent splitting and cracking. In 1844,Charles Goodyear patented vulcanization*, which made solid rubber wheels possible. http://www.pedalinghistory.com/PHhistory.html There is still a lively debate over the invention of the rubber for tires. Early American Indians harvested rubber, but there is no record of their using rubber for tires. *Vulcanization: The process of curing rubber with sulphur to make it more stable in hot and cold weather. The pneumatic wheel was first applied to a bicycle by John Boyd Dunlop, and later used in automobiles. RADIAL TIRE In the 1900's, tire companies experiment with adding leather, wood, and steel to rubber pneumatic tires to improve durability. 1946 www.tire-information-world.com The radial cords in the sidewall of a radial tire allow it to act like a spring, giving flexibility and ride comfort. Cords can be made of steel,(hence the term steel-belted radial) or Polyester or Aramid fibers such as Twaron and Kevlar.
LEATHER/WOOD TIRE RUBBER TIRE 1844 STEEL WHEEL
1927 METAL ALLOY WHEEL TWEEL 2005 The flexible spokes are fused with a flexible wheel that deforms to absorb shock and rebound with ease. Without the air needed by conventional tires, Tweel still delivers pneumatic-like performance in weight-carrying capacity, ride comfort, and the ability to "envelope" road hazards. Hanlon, Mike. "The TWEEL - radical new wheel technology (UPDATED)." Gizmag 29 April 2005: n. pag. Web. 5 Aug 2010. <http://www.gizmag.com/go/3603/>. In 2005, Michelin invented the tweel, an airless integrated tire and wheel combination, but it has not been made available for passenger cars yet. Metal alloy wheels have many advantages over steel wheels: lighter weight (they are made from aluminum or aluminum mixed with another metal like magnesium), more strength, better heat dissipation, but it costs much more than steel wheels, and are used mainly on performance vehicles. Zane, William. "Alloy Vs. Steel Wheels." eHow 2010: n. pag. Web. 5 Aug 2010. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5516245_alloy-vs-steel-wheels.html>.