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Marcela Pinzon

on 10 May 2016

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Motivations for the voyages
Reactivation of trade with Asia (After struggle with Black Death)
Need of products demanded in Europe (Spices)
New followers for Catholicism (missionaries traveled with sailors)
Prestige and economic power for countries (control of trade routes)
Faster movement of products (not by land)
Sailors that began to investigate
*Prince Henry(1432): Sponsored navigators (educated them), got ti Africa and established trade with some tribes, and tried to convert followers in Africa from Muslims
*Bartholomew Dias (1488): Cape of Good Hope
*Vasco da Gama (1497): to India and Back
*Pedro Álvarez Cabral (1500): To America and then India
Tools that allowed the exploration
*Map making: Cartography (science of developing maps). Were more accurate and showed the surface of the world and distances more accurate (Mercator)
Magnetic Compass: Showed magnetic north, allowed sailors to determine a direction
Astrolabe: Position in relation to north/south using Stars
Winds: Maps showed the direction of winds to use them more effectively
Caravels: Small ship, fast and easy to maneuver
Conquest and colonization of America
*As soon as Spanish began to discover America they began to set up colonies.
*Conquistadors (Sailors/military leaders) were in charge of the colonization
*Most important empires of America: Inca and Aztec
*New governments were settled: Conquistadors kept power but payed taxes to the crown and had to obey orders
*Missionaries also traveled to convert the indigenous (either willing or not...)
Aztec Empire (Mexico)
*Head of Aztec Empire: Moctezuma
*Conquistador: Hernan Cortez
*Year of Arrival: 1519
*Soldiers of Cortez: 600
*Strategy of Cortez
Malinche (Indigenous woman that served as translator)
Help from enemy tribes
Cortez killed Moctezuma in battle
*Year of Spanish Conquest: 1521
*New Spain
Results of the exploration
*Eager for knowledge: Europeans became marveled with the new world they discovered and wanted to further investigate it
*New products: European nations became rich because the new american products
*More workers and converts: discovered tribes were seen as new followers of Catholicism and useful workers
*Dispute for new colonies: European nations began to compete to find new colonies and trading routes to control and earn money from
*Diffusion of maps: Maps became popular and common. more people became interested in the voyages, they meant an "easy way" of becoming rich and famous
DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF AMERICA: Causes, travelers, advances and the case of Mexico and Peru
Italians (Helped by the Spanish crown)
*Christopher Columbus (1492): got to America, he never knew was a new continent.
*Amerigo Vespucci (1501): Mapped the coast of America
*Magellan and crew (1519-1522): CIRCUMNAVIGATED the world

Inca Empire
*Head of Inca Empire: Atahualpa
*Conquistador: Francisco Pizarro
*Year of Arrival: 1530's
*Strategy of Pizarro
Incas were in the middle of a Civil war (division inside the empire)
Kidnapping/Killing Atahualpa
Pizarro appointed a new Inca leader that was loyal to the crown
*Year of Spanish Conquest: 1533
*Vice royalty of Peru
Consequences of colonization
*Thousands of indigenous were wiped by European diseases (And same happened to Europeans)
*Europeans began to extract goods (specially metals in Bullions. By 1600: 200 tons of gold and 18,000 of silver)
*Ornaments, decoration and temples were destroyed (Tenoctitlan, Quipus). Religions were eliminated and Christianity was forced
*Cultures were influenced both ways(Indigenous: art and architecture, Spanish: language, laws and religion)
*Mixed race: new races came by the mixing of American, Africans and Europeans (The whiter race, the better)
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