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Martin Luther King Jr.
Transcript of Martin Luther King Jr.
The March On Washington for Jobs and Freedom and the "I Have a Dream" Speech
March occured on August 28, 1963 in Washington, D.C
Over 250,000 people marched for equality
Leaders of the March
The organizers of the March on Washington are collectively called the "Big Six" and included:
James Farmer of the Congress of Racial Equality
Martin Luther King, Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
John Lewis of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
A. Phillip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Roy Wilkins of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Whitney Young, Jr. of the National Urban League
At first, President Kennedy was against the march because he thought it would slow down the passage of civil rights legislation. Once he realized that he could do nothing to stop the march, he began to support it.
There was continued dissent from white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan.
Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam believed that civil rights was achieved through violence and were opposed to the peacefulness of the march.
Each of the "Big Six" delivered a speech, except for the jailed James Farmer
Additional speeches came from Josephine Baker, Walter Reuther, and many religious leaders
The most famous speech delivered was Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream Speech"
Considered one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory
The speech's most famous passage was a departure from his prepared script, prompted by Mahalia Jackson, who shouted "Tell them about the dream!"
Purpose of the March
Demands of the march included:
passage of meaningful civil rights legislation
elimination of segregation in public schools
protection for demonstrators against police brutality
major public works program to provide jobs
passage of law prohibiting racial discrimination in hiring
$2/hr minimum wage
Organization of the March
Bayard Rustin and the "Big Six" had two months to organize the march
Money was raised through the sale of buttons and the donations of thousands of people
The event was planned very carefully to ensure that there would be no outbreaks of violence
Effects of the March
Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Together these bills outlawed the segregation of public facilities and prohibited discriminatory practices in employment and voting
Martin Luther King, Jr. received dozens of honorary degrees and awards, including:
• Selected one of the most outstanding personalities of the year by Time, 1957.
• Listed in Who's Who in America, 1957.
• the Spingarn Medal from NAACP, 1957.
• The Russwurm Award from the National Newspaper Publishers, 1957.
• The Second Annual Achievement -- The Guardian Association of the Police Department of New York, 1958.
• Link Magazine of New Delhi, India, listed Dr. King as one of the sixteen world leaders who had contributred most to the advancement of freedom during 1959.
• Named Man of the Year by Time, 1963.
• Named American of the Decade by Laundry, Dry Cleaning, and Die Workers International Union, 1963.
• The John Dewey Award, from the United Federation of Teachers, 1964.
• The John F. Kennedy Award, from the Catholic Interracial Council of Chicago, 1964.
• The Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. At age 35, Dr. King was the youngest man, the second American, and the third black man awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
• The Marcus Garvey Prize for Human Rights, presented by the Jamaican Government. (posthumously) 1968.
• The Rosa L. Parks Award, presented by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. (posthumously) 1968.
King was standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, where he had come to participate in a march of striking sanitation workers. A single shot from an unknown source hit him in the face and neck, and he died an hour later. A bundle was found containing a suspicious rifle , and fingerprints on the rifle and other items were matched to James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary. Ray was arrested in Heathrow Airport in London, apparently on his way to Rhodesia. Ray pled guilty to escape the death penalty and died in prison on April 23, 1998.
"One day, a wise Martian come down to Earth to teach us people a thing or two," I say.
"Martian? How big?"
"Oh, he about six-two."
"What's his name?"
"Martian Luther King."
She take a deep breath and lean her head down on my shoulder. I feel her three-year old heart racing against mine, flapping like butterflies on my white uniform.
"He was a real nice Martian, Mister King. Looked just like us, nose, mouth, hair up on his head, but sometime people looked at him funny and sometime, well, I guess sometime people was just downright mean."
I could get in a lot a trouble telling her these little stories, especially with Mister Leefolt. But Mae Mobley know these our "secret stories."
"Why Aibee? Why was they so mean to him?" she ask.
"Cause he was green."
Born as Michael Luther King Jr. on January 15th, 1929, in Atlanta, Martin Luther King Jr. was the first son and second child of Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta Williams King.
Segregated public schools
Booker T. Washington High School
Crozer Theological Seminary
Martin Luther King Jr.
While he studied at Boston, he met Coretta Scott, an accomplished and bright young woman. They were married on June 18th, 1953, and had four children.
Secured progress on the civil rights movement
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
NAACP has carried on his mission for the justice of all colored people
Coretta Scott King established the Atlanta-based Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change (also known as the King Center) to promote the concepts of nonviolence
The 48th anniversary of the groundbreaking March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom witnessed the dedication of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
The beginning words of King’s “I Have a Dream” speech are etched on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, at the place where King stood during that speech
How Does Martin Luther King, Jr. Relate to THE HELP?
There are several references to King and his marches throughout the book.They include:
""A little dangerous?" She laughed. "The marches in Birmingham, Martin Luther King. Dogs attacking colored children. Darling, it's the hottest topic in the nation.""- Elaine Stein, page 124
""Martin Luther King, dear. He just announced a march on D.C. and invited every Negro in America to join him. Every white person, for that matter. This many Negro and white people haven't worked together since Gone With the Wind."'-Elaine Stein, page 185
'"Tonight, we are going to lift our prayers to God. We will march peacefully down the streets of Jackson next Tuesday. And in August, I will see you in Washington to march with Doctor King."'- the Deacon, page 245
"Ever colored person in Jackson gets in front a whatever tee-vee set they can find, watches Martin Luther King stand in our nation's capital and tell us he's got a dream. I'm in the church basement watching. Our own Reverend Johnson went up there to march and I find myself scanning the crowd for his face. I can't believe so many peoples is there--two hundred fifty thousand. And the ringer is, sixty thousand of them is white."- Aibileen, page 347
Montgomery Bus Boycott
By 1954, Martin Luther King was already a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
On December 1, 1955, the secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, Rosa Parks, refused to give up her seat in the front of the bus. Parks was arrested and sent to jail.
In early December, after much planning, Martin Luther King took his position as leader of the first momentous Negro non-violent demonstration in the United States.
The boycott lasted 328 days, and finally, on December 21, 1956, the Supreme Court declared segregation on buses unconstitutional.
During the boycott, King was arrested, his house was bombed, and he was subjected to abuse, but he also emerged with a new sense of determination and success as the nation’s most prominent Negro leader.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Martin Luther King joined other civil rights activists to found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
King was elected president, and using his position and influence, he encouraged non-violent civil disobedience as the best method to fight for civil rights.
The SCLC directed and led various sit-ins and marches for various local causes.
These methods all aimed to end segregation and disenfranchisement of the black population.
Although the protesters tried to avoid violence and disputes, they were occasionally met with hostility and aggression from authorities.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
The Birmingham Campaign commenced on April 3, 1963, with organized marches and sit-ins against segregation in Birmingham, Alabama.
This campaign was coordinated by King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights.
On April 12, Martin Luther King and several other marchers were forcefully arrested.
On that same day, an ally smuggled in a newspaper which contained an article called “Call for Unity,” a statement made by white Alabama clergymen against King and his integration techniques.
Two days later, Martin Luther King began to write a response to the newspaper.
The letter endorses the policy of non-violent resistance to racism and claims that people have the moral responsibility to break unjust laws.
This letter became known as the “Letter from Birmingham Jail”; it gained eminence due to its widespread publication.
It was a vital text for the American civil rights movement of the early 1960s.
The Legacy of Martin Luther King
Led to nationwide chaos including race riots and protests.
Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy gave a short speech to supporters to urge them to continue King’s faith in non-violent activism.
President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for Martin Luther King Jr.
However, King’s death did not prevent his planned protests.
Thousands of supporters worked hard to ensure that many of his planned protests were successful.
Thank you for viewing!