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Endocrine System

Glands of the Endocrine system

Greg Doke

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of Endocrine System

Endocrine System Pituitary gland Location BRAIN Purpose Citing http://www.hormone.org/Pituitary/overview.cfm
The pituitary gland can be seen as the master gland,
secretes hormones that are vital for our body to grow
as well as stimulate other glands of the endocrine system
to secrete hormones
When Works through out a humans life.Secreting hormones gradually, influencing emotions, activating other
glands for growth ex. puberty What is secreted Prolactin - stimulates milk
Growth hormone (GH)- maturing body
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)- stress
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)- maintains metabolism
Luteinizing hormone (LH)- testosterone and estrogen

Diseases Acromegaly the overgrowth of bodily tissues caused by prolonged, excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH). causes broadening and enlargement of facial features and an increase in the size of the hands and feet Sx Cushings Syndrome a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body’s tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol Sx upper body obesity, a rounded face, increased fat around the neck, and relatively slender arms and legs. The skin becomes fragile and thin, bruises easily, and heals poorly Thyroid gland Location lower part of the neck, below the Adam's apple, wrapped around the trachea Purpose A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate:
the heart rate
blood pressure
body temperature
Metabolism When Since the thyroid gland regulates metabolism it works continually
after digestion to give the body's cells energy What is secreted Thyroxine (T4)- metabolism
iodothyronine (T3)- metabolism
calcitonin- controls calcium level in blood stream
Diseases Graves Disease a condition in which the body produces abnormal cells (antibodies) that result in the thyroid gland's overproduction of thyroid hormone Sx very tired
hair loss
gaining weight
constipation Thyroiditis
tenderness and inflammation of the thyroid gland, excessive thyroid hormone can be released.It's usually caused by a bacterial infection Sx Severe pain
fever Adrenal glands Location triangular shaped, orange-colored endocrine glands which are located on the top of both kidneys Purpose Produces epinephrine (fright) and adrenaline (flight).It also produces other hormones necessary for fluid and electrolyte (salt) balance in the body.

The adrenal cortex also makes sex hormones but this only becomes important if overproduction is present.
When The adrenal glands secrete hormones
only when the body needs it. In a
dangerous situation, the adrenal glands
will secrete hormones that will give small
boost of energy what it secretes epinephrine - flight
norepinephrine (adrenaline)-fight
cortisone- fluid and electrolyte balance
aldosterone-fluid and electrolyte balance Diseases Adrenal gland tumor cells of the adrenal gland become abnormal and grow uncontrollably to produce either benign or malignant tumors Addison's Disease Sx raise blood pressure
heart rate
sometimes no symptoms the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones the body needs to function properly Sx chronic fatigue
muscle weakness
loss of appetite
weight loss, hypoglycemia
low blood pressure that drops when you stand so that you feel dizzy Hypothalamus location Brain Purposes Body temperature
Release of hormones from many glands
Sex drive
When The hypothalmus is gland
that spurts out hormones periodically
as the body needs it what it secretes Somatostatin- inhibits the release of other hormones
Dopamine- inhibits the release of other hormones
Vasopressin- facilitate the reabsorption of water into the blood
Oxytocin- bonding between males and females
bonding mother and her newborn
Thymus Location upper thorax behind the sternum purpose the processing and maturation of special lymphocytes (white blood cells) called T-lymphocytes or T-cells the processing and maturation of special lymphocytes (white blood cells) called T-lymphocytes or T-cells the processing and maturation of special lymphocytes (white blood cells) called T-lymphocytes or T-cells When The thymus gland is most active during early life, playing a major role in the development of a child's immune system before birth and the time after What it secretes Thymosin- control the maturation of T cells
"T" lymphocytes- white blood cells Diseases Thyroma is a tumor originating from the epithelial cells of the thymus Sx compression of the surrounding organs
dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
chest pain Pineal gland Location is a tiny organ in the center of the brain Purpose Causes Feeling of Sleepiness
Converts Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals
Regulates Endocrine Functions
Secretes the Hormone Melatonin
What it secretes Melatonin- causes you to feel sleepy When When ever the body needs rests, nightly Diseases Insomnia Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep, or having nonrefreshing sleep for at least 1 month.
Sx Difficulty falling asleep on most nights
Feeling tired during the day or falling asleep during the day
Not feeling refreshed when you wake up
Waking up several times during sleep
Ovaries Location lateral wall of the pelvis in a region called the ovarian fossa purposes production of hormones or chemicals which regulate menstruation and other aspects of health and well-being, including sexual well-being.
When sexually active
menstrual period What it secretes Progesterone
Oestrogen Diseases A condition in which there are many small cysts in the ovaries, which can affect a woman's ability to get pregnant.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sx Abnormal, irregular, or very light or infrequent menstrual periods
Acne that gets worse
Decreased breast size
Increased hair growth; body hair may be in a male pattern
Poor response to the hormone
Weight gain, or obesity Ovarian Cancer

is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary Sx Pressure or pain in the abdomen, pelvis, back, or legs
A swollen or bloated abdomen
Nausea, indigestion, gas, constipation, or diarrhea
Feeling very tired all the time
Testes They are located behind the penis in a pouch of skin called the scrotum Location Purpose The testes produce and store sperm, and are also the body's main source of male hormones. These hormones control the development of the reproductive organs and other male characteristics, such as body and facial hair, low voice, and wide shoulders.
What it secretes testosterone When throughout life Diseases Testicular cancer
Testicular cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the testicles divide and grow uncontrolled Sx lump, irregularity or enlargement in either testicle
pulling sensation or feeling of unusual heaviness in the scrotum
a dull ache in the groin or lower abdomen
pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum.
inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis is the coiled tube that lies on and behind each testicle Sx a lump in one testis or a hardening of one of the testicles
abnormal sensitivity
loss of sexual activity or interest
sexual withdrawal
A burning sensation, especially following physical activity.
build-up of fluid in the scrotum
a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin
lower back pain
blood in semen
general weak and tired feeling
Parathyroid gland Location behind the thyroid gland in the neck Purpose A gland that regulates calcium What it secretes parathormone -regulates calcium When through out life, for our bones Diseases Hyperparathyroidism is most commonly caused by a benign (not cancer) tumor called an adenoma.regulation problems with hormones Sx generalized bone aches and pains
abdominal pain
depression Islets of Langerhans Location special groups of cells in the pancreas Function secrete the pancreatic endocrine hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate blood glucose levels. what is secreted insulin
glucagon when throughout life Diseases Pancreatic cancer a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Sx No early symptoms
Upper abdominal pain
Worsening abdominal pain
Upper back pain
Abdominal pain lessens when bending forward Diseases Hypothalamic hamartoma
A benign congenital tumor that develops on or near the hypothalamus Sx Uncontrollable laughing fits
Premature puberty
Behavioral disorders
Cognitive problems
Episodes of rage
Social problems
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