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Transcript of THE ATOM!!
Atoms and The Elements
By: Frank Garcia
A simple analogy for an atom is a LEGO block. Atoms are the building blocks of the universe, and LEGOs are the building blocks of a child's playing structure. Atoms are similar
to LEGOs because:
They can be categorized
They have different qualities
They can be combined to make other structures
Atoms are made up of even smaller parts called protons, neutrons,
and electrons. In turn these are made of even smaller particles
called quarks. There are three quarks in every proton and neutron
each quark is held together by particles called gluons.
The atom explains many things in physics. , including:
How so many variations of atoms exist
How you can have so many different isotopes of a single atom
How molecular structures are formed
How nuclear fusion works
In general how the universe works at the microscopic level
What does the subject make you think of?
Break the subject into parts. Tell how it is made.
Describe the subject's uses.
Use any reasoning to argue for or against the subject.
or Against It
There were many theories about atoms before the era of modern science. The Greek philosophers had been working on theories about atoms. In fact, a Greek philosopher named Democritus had though,'If you break a piece of matter in half, and then break it in half again, how many breaks will you have to make before you can break it no further?' Aristotle dismissed the idea and the theory wasn't accepted. It wasn't until the 1800's that the theory was questioned.
Here are a few interesting facts about the elements.
The 18th column in the Periodic Table is known as the noble gases because these gases rarely interact with other elements.
Being exposed to just ten nanograms of Polonium (84) can be fatal! Luckily, Polonium doesn't form in the open.
It has been thought for a long time that Iridium was the densest element, but that simply isn't true:Osmium is! Density of an element is determined by the density of a perfect single crystal of a perfectly pure sample of an element. Sometimes it is difficult to do this, so using X-Ray Crystallography is a more accurate method to finding the density. The problem is that when this method was used, the accepted values for Osmium and Iridium were wrong. Although these values have long since been corrected, nobody went back to recalculate them.
Examine the subject closely and describe what you see.
The atom is a complex mechanism of physics. Every atom can be classified int a certain group by their characteristics. They are classified into elements by their properties, but mainly by their number of protons. The number of neutrons determines the isotope. Each atom has the ability to "share" electrons with another atom; when this happens a new substance is formed.
All About Atoms
What is it similar to? What is it different from?
The Periodic Table organizes all the elements by their traits.
All the atoms are different. From Hydrogen (I) to Rhenium (75) to
Francium (87) to Ununoctium (118). Some atoms will decompose.
Other man made elements only have short "half lives". Atoms can be
compared by their:
State of Matter
Atomic Emission Spectrum
It's probable that you have some radioactive materials
in your very own home! 241Am is significantly more
radioactive than Plutonium used in weapons, but it is
available to the public! Your smoke detectors use tiny
amounts of Americium. Ionization-type smoke detectors
contain a tiny foil button to release a steady stream of
alpha particles, which travel through an air chamber and
detected as an electrical current on the other side. If even a
microscopic amount of smoke particles interfere with the alpha particles , disturbing the current, the alarm is triggered. Even the bananas you eat are radioactive! Well, virtually everything you eat is radioactive (even if its just a little) bananas are just slightly more because of the Potassium.
Gray, Theodore. The Elements A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe. 1st Edition. New York: Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers Inc., 2009.
Ron Bonnstetter, Ph.D.. ScienceSaurus A Student Handbook. 181 Ballardvale Street, Wilmington, MA 01887: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.