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Estuaries (Swamp) Biome project

Biology semester 1 Community High
by

Arimeta Diop

on 3 October 2013

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Transcript of Estuaries (Swamp) Biome project

Estuaries(Swamp)
Tristan Hart
Biology Semester 1

Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
Trophic Pyramid
Passion Fruit Flower
Jaguar
Capybara
The
largest rodent in the world, the capybara is a
keystone
species of the Pantanal. They are
herbivores
and the preferred prey of many other
animals including
the anaconda and puma. If
they were taken

out of the
food chain, the population
of those that prey on this
animal would dip and
the vegetation it
feeds on would rise
Precipitation
Turbidity
This is the measure of water cloudiness due to the amount of matter within the water. Too high a level of turbidity means less sunlight available for aquatic plants.
Seaward Boundary
Boundaries include sand, mud, or little islands/fingers of land. These protect estuaries from the full brunt of ocean waves, wind, storms, or tides
Food Web
Relationships
Endangered Species
Succession
Impact of Human Activity
Predictions on the ecosystem
The Pantanal is the specific swamp biome that will be discussed. It is located in the South American country of Brazil.
Tertiary Consumer
Secondary Consumer
Primary Consumer
Producers
The amount of rain precipitated and evaporated within a biome such as this is extremely important. Too much rain can wash out the habitats of species that live close to the water, while a drought could mean a decline in many plant and animal populations. Depends on the day of the year the precipitation could reach up to 800mm. Naturally Brazil is a very warm climate so i would suggest wearing shorts and a t-shirt but bring a warm sweatshirt and some sweatpants if you plan on walking
around until it gets dark. The nights can be pretty
Chilly.
Nutrients
In order to grow and survive, substances such as nitrogen and phosphorus are necessary for species in estuary biomes
Mango Tree
Pink Trumpet Tree
Orchid Flower
Cashew Fruit
An especially interesting form of mutualism found here, is during the hatching of alligator eggs. The adult alligators lay their eggs at the edges of the estuary. The water pushed in from the alligator's labors helps the plants present in the area. The alligator has a safe place for its offspring and the vegetation receives water.
Bare-faced Curassow
Blue and Yellow Macaw
Capybaras
Great Kiskadee
Greater Rhea
Hyaconth Macaw
Red Breasted Cardinal
Buff-Necked Ibis
Stangler Fig
Wattled Jacana
Brown Capuchin Monkey
Burrowing Owl
Dourado
Guira Cuckoos
Pirahna
Wattled Jacana
S. American Coati
Bat Falcons
Crested Caracara
Great Black Hawk
Jaguar
Pantanal Caiman
Savannah Hawk
Striped Owl
The Hyacinth Macaw is an endangered species of the Pantanal due to illegal smuggling and habitat loss because of cattle ranching and agricultural projects. However there is protection in effect to save these dazzling birds. Due to the dedication of the Hyacinth Macaw Project the population of these birds in the 450,000 hectare region the program oversees has inclined from 1,500 to 5,000 over the course of 14 years! (p.s. a hectare is equivalent to about 3 acres; 2.47 acres to be more exact.)
(Secondary)
An event such as a hurricane tsunami are the most likely candidates for causing secondary succession. Due to the location of estuaries, flooding is always a true concern; erode away soil, flood habitats change

would be lost in storm due to erosion, because of the lost of habitat and hunting grounds the population of many predators would begin to take a dip, and finally the flooding creates a greater area of living space for aquatic species, increasing their population numbers, but destroying means of food and habitat for other organisms.
Due to human activities, some of which including the dumping of waste, pesticide or fertilizer run-off, and and even the occasional oil spill, water pollution has become a growing threat to estuaries and biomes like it. The polluting of water affects the nitrogen and carbon cycle as well but mainly hurts the water cycle itself. Due to the introduction of a man-made pollutant the water cycle goes on as nature intended but with a deadly add-on: acid rain. This in fact keeps the pollutants stuck within the cycle being that when the water evaporates pollutants are present and when percipiation occurs, those very pollutants are still present.
Mutualism
Parasitism
Predator-Prey
present
in
Biome
Leaf Cutter Ants
Cashew Fruits
Pantanal Grassland
Jaguar
Giant Anteater
Crested Caracara
Great Black Hawk
Jabiru Stork
Burrowing Owl
Pantanal Caiman
Due to the increased amounts of pollution and deforestation the very size of the Pantanal may not be as great in the coming years. The issue of pollution is most eminent in the north, where run-off from pesticides and fertilizers is a rampant problem. The south is victim to the cultivating for farmland leaving many of the organisms without a home and killing off others. However there are efforts to preserve this land. So in my opinion the Pantanal may be smaller in size, but if efforts prevail, the many animals, insects, and vegetation present here will not take to drastic a decline in their populations.
The jaguar is a tertiary consumer with little competition. One of its main prey being the capybara.
Jaguars are tertiary consumers in the Pantanal giving them a strong role in the populations of many of the organisms it preys on. If they overeat, populations could take a dangerous dip and if they were taken out of the equation populations could rise substantially.
The Strangler fig is a rather different form of a parasitic relationship being that it is between trees! The trees themselves do not in fact strangle their host but rather grow in a manner that makes it appear as such. The seeds start off as epiphytes and germinate in the crevices of their hosts. Once they begin to grow, their roots move downward enveloping the host and while also growing upward to reach the sunlight. The original tree may die in this process.
Other Biome Ecosystems
The flora of the Pantanal is strongly influenced by the surrounding biomes. From the lush moist tropical Amazonian plants to the semiarid woodland plants of NE Brazil, the vegetation of the pantanal, due to this intense mixture, is often referred to as the "Pantanal Complex"
Fauna
Fauna is defined as the animals of a certain region or geological period. The fauna of the pantanal is believed to be home to a thousand bird species and nearly nine-thousand subspecies of invertebrates. Also there is most likely the strongest population of jaguars in the world while being home to some of the rarest species such as the endangered hyacinth macaw.
Pantanal Caiman
Like the jaguar, the pantanal caiman is a tertiary consumer.
Since
there are hardly any predators for this species competition is the only possible way to keep their population in check. The population of their prey also depends strongly on the pantanal caiman's actions
Recreational Activities
Caiman hunting Is a popular activity in
Brazil. It is common for people to
hunt crocodile for fun.
Oysters cannot live in all parts of an estuary. If it gets washed down the stream it will die. The only place they can live is near NYC where the water is salty.
In the Pantanal estuary you can go horse back riding canoeing and even cycling.
http://www.brazilnaturetours.com/vacation-packages/pantanal/pousada-piuval-tours
Without this biome many of the animals in the water and nearby the water will die because of the great things this area has to offer.
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