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Biology EOC Review 2-Mechanisms of Genetics

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Clarissa Caro

on 7 April 2013

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Transcript of Biology EOC Review 2-Mechanisms of Genetics

Biology EOC Review 2 Mechanisms of Genetics DNA Meiosis Inheritance DNA Technology Carry genetic information
Made of a chain of nucleotides
Nucleotides contain a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base DNA / RNA RNA
Single stranded
Four base pairs: AUCG
Sugar is Ribose
Found in the cytoplasm/attached to the Endoplasmic Reticulum DNA
Double stranded
“Double Helix”
Four base pairs: ATGC
Sugar is Deoxyribose
Found in nucleus DNA / RNA DNA
Adenine always pairs with Thymine
Guanine always pairs with Cytosine Base Pair Rule Making of an identical strand of DNA

“semi” conservative Replication DNA-->  RNA-->  protein-->  trait Central Dogma Transcription A- amino acid
B- tRNA
C- anticodon
D- codon
E- mRNA
F- Ribosome
G-polypeptide Connects amino acids in the correct order to make a protein
Occurs in the cytoplasm within the ribosomes Translation Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that code for an amino acid Codon Sickle Cell Mutation Change in DNA code
May cause a change in protein produced
NOT always harmful Mutations Cell division of gametes
Produces four different haploid daughter cells (gametes)
Occurs in sex cells (ovaries and testes) to form gametes Meiosis Homologous chromosomes exchange parts of their DNA
Creates variation in gametes Crossing Over Homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
Can lead to Down Syndrome, Turners Syndrome, and Klinefelters Syndrome Nondisjunction Sexual
Two parents
Offspring different from parents
More variation
Fertilization (fusion of gametes) Asexual
One parent
Identical offspring
Variation only thru mutations
Examples: budding, fragmentation, fission Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Traits are specific characteristics inherited from parents
Genes are the factors that determine traits
The different forms of a gene are called alleles Inheritance Dominant alleles are expressed, if present, and recessive are hidden Dominant/Recessive Alleles Heterozygous
Both alleles are different
Ex. Bb Homozygous
Both alleles are the same
Ex. BB or bb Genotype
actual alleles an individual has for a trait The actual characteristic displayed by the individual (ex. brown eyes, stem height) Phenotype Heterozygote shows a blending of the dominant and recessive phenotypes Incomplete Dominance Heterozygote expresses BOTH dominant and recessive traits
Ex. Roan animals Codominance Traits are influenced by more than one gene
Ex. skin color, coat color Polygenic Traits More than two alleles for a trait (an individual still only inherits two)
Ex. Blood Type (I^A,I^B, i)
type A = I^AI^A or I^Ai
type B = I^BI^B or I^Bi
type AB= I^AI^B
type O = ii Multiple Alleles Sex Chromosomes
Female = XX
Male = XY
Sex linked traits are carried on the X chromosome
Ex. Hemophilia, red-green colorblindness Sex Linked Traits Used to determine the phenotype of an unknown dominant individual
Uses a homozygous recessive individual as the “test” Test Cross Similar to a family tree
Shows pattern of inheritance of a specific trait through a family Pedigree Ex. Down Syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, and Turners Syndrome Picture of someone's chromosomes
Can detect chromosomal disorders Karyotype Sequencing of human DNA
Being used to develop gene therapies Human Genome Project Technique used to separate molecules (DNA or proteins) based on their size
Sometimes called a DNA fingerprint
Used to analyze and compare DNA Gel Electrophoresis Cell with DNA from another source
Bacteria used to produce human insulin
Human gene inserted into bacterial plasmid Recombinant DNA An organism with a gene from another source
used to improve food supply, research, and healthcare Transgenic Organism An organism made from one cell of another organism
A genetically identical copy Clone RNA
Adenine always pairs with Uracil
Guanine always pairs with Cytosine
Involves DNA & RNA
Occurs in nucleus
Complementary mRNA strand is produced from a segment of DNA “Recipe for success:
Study while others are sleeping; work while others are loafing; prepare while others are playing; and dream while others are wishing.”

~ William A. Ward
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