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Copy of Cultural Differences

International Tourism Mangagement

Stefanie Spreng

on 28 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Cultural Differences

Sophie Schachl & Stefanie Spreng Cultural Differences Ingrid Griffiths Richard Sharpley (2012)
Influences of nationalism on tourist-host relationships
Annals of Tourism Reserach
Vol. 39, Issue 4, pp. 2051–2072

Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner (1997)
Cross-cultural differences in tourism:
Indonesian tourists in Australia
Tourism Management
Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 139-147

Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner (1998)
Cultural Differences between Mandarin-Speaking Tourists and Australian Hosts and their impact on Cross-Cultural Tourist-Host Interaction
Journal of Business Research
Vol. 42, Issue 2, pp. 175-187

Enrique Ortega, Beatriz Rodríguez (2007)
Information at tourism destinations.
Importance and cross-cultural differences between international and domestic tourists
Journal of Business Research
Vol. 60, Issue 2, pp. 146-152
Wei Wie (2012)
Research on the Cross-Cultural Marketing Strategy of China’s Tourims Enterprises
Procedia Environmental Sciences
Vol. 12, Part B, pp.1110-1115

H.R Seddighi, M.W Nuttall, A.L Theocharous (April 2001)
Does cultural background of tourists influence the destination choice?
An empirical study with spcial reference to political stability
Tourism Management
Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 181-191
Siew Imm Ng, Julie Anne Lee, Geoffrey N. Soutar (December 2006)
Tourist’s intention to visit a country: The impact of cultural distance
Tourism Management
Vol. 28, Issue 6, pp. 1497-1506
Doo Syen Kang, Teresa Mastin (2008)
How cultural difference affects international tourism public relation websites:
A comparative analysis using Hofsted’s cultural dimensions
Public Relations Review
Vol. 34, Issue 1, pp. 54-56
Chris Ryan (2002)
Tourism and Cultural Proximity: Examples from New Zealand
Annals of Tourism Research
Vol. 29, Issue 4, pp. 952-971
Daniel C. Funk, Tennille J. Bruun (2007)
The role of socio-psychological and culture-education motives in marketing international
sport tourism: A cross-cultural perspective
Tourism Management
Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 806-819
Yvette Reisinger, Felix Mavondo (2006)
Cultural Differences in Travel Risk Perception
Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing
Vol. 20(1), pp. 13-31

Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner (1998)
Cross-Cultural Differences in Tourism:
A Strategy for Tourism Marketers
Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing
Vol. 7(4), pp. 79-106 (Peer Reviewed Journal)

Kurtulus Karamustafa, Galia Fuchs, Arie Reichel (2013)
Risk Perception of a Mixed-Image Destination:
The Case of Turkey’s First-Time Versus Repeat Leisure Visitors
Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management
Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 243-268
Literatur Review 13 articles
1axtract from a Ph. D. paper Prof. Linda Osti
7 different journals
11 different authors
journal sources
Science direct
Business Search Premier
Reserve Collection, Prof. Osti
Introduction Tourism as world’s most important activities
Tourism as fastest growing element in global trade
International tourism always more popular
Trend: travelling to experiences other cultures
International tourism has cross-cultural nature
Cultural difference between international tourists& destination as an important factor
(H.R Seddighi, M.W Nuttall, A.L Theocharous, 2001) (Wei Wie, 2012) Culture distinguishes different nationalities of people

majority of individuals share a stable, dominant cultural character

remains constant over a long period of time

difficult to change Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1997
Culture Culture great influence on tourism businesses entering the international market

successful cross-cultural marketing = key for tourism enterprises
Cultural Differences result of differences in dominant cultural character of societies

tourist behaviour is affected by cultural background
Cultural Differences social contact with a culture different from one’s own either can be rewarding or not

international tourist values do no equal host values

individual & regional cultural differences-> cultural background more important
Cultural Differences The critical variable of cross-cultural tourist-host contact Cultural Differences 3 types of social contact (Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1997) (Hofestede's, 1980b) (Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1997) (Hofestede's, 1980b) a way of life of a particular group of people

patterns of behaviour

feeling and thinking

people’s values perceptions

symbols, attitudes

values acquired in early childhood through the same life experience

determines national education, religion, work organizations,…
(Harris, 1968; Kluckhohn, 1951; Bagby, 1953; Radcliffe-Brown, 1957; Malinowski, 1939; Hofstede, 1980a; Triandis, 1972; Urriola, 1989; Geertz, 1973; Hofstede, 1980b)(Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1998)

Wei Wie, 2012 (Hofstede’s, 1980b)
(Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1998) (Chen, 2000; Crotts & Erdmann, 2000; Litvin, Crotts, & Hefner, 2004; Litvin & Kar, 2003) (Daniel C. Funk, Tennille J. Bruun, 2007) Cultural Differences in cultural values, social behaviour, attitudes, perceptions, needs, expectations, experiences, beliefs, norms, motivations, verbal and non-verbal behaviour

may be small or large

importance of understanding how cultural differences in cultural elements affect interpersonal interactions

can cause differences in behaviour & its interpretation
(Landis, Brislin, 1983) (Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1998) (Landis, Brislin, 1983) (Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1998) (Sutton, W., Travel and understanding: notes on the social structure of tourism) International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1967, 8(2), 218-223 (Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1997) (Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1998) (Boissevain and Inglott, 1979; Brewer, 1984; Pi-Sunyer, 1978) (Pizam and Sussman, 1995)(Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner, 1998) extent of the cultural similarities & differences between participants

-> degree of “interculturalness” in the encounter

(Levine, 1979) (Sutton, 1967) 1) the same, or similar

2) different - differences are small & supplementary

3) different - differences are large & incompatible

desirable behaviour culture A does not equal desirable behaviour in culture B (Sutton, 1967) (Brewer&Campbell, 1976) (Brewer&Campbell, 1976) (Sutton, 1967; Triandis, 1977) (Brislin, 1981)
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