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The history and development with all the facts about animation.

Sonny Mackay

on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of Animation

History Of Animation What is meant by persistence of vision? Task 1: Animation Techniques Persistence of vision is a visual phenomenon where an image is retained in the eye for a short period of time creating an illusion of continuous motion in film and video. In other words the images are shown fast enough like frames so you don't see the separate images. For example when looking at a flip book our mind perceives us as a short animation when rather it's a lot of pictures or frames put together. This means that everything we see is a subtle blend of what is happening now and what happened a fraction of a second ago (0.04 seconds). Stop motion (also known as stop frame) is an animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a continuous sequence. Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motion films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic effect. There are plenty of examples like the one in the next slide... Example of stop motion Stop Motion Frame rates are how many images of a movie are displayed every second a movie is played. The higher the frame rate a movie has, the smoother objects move in the movie. To get very good results, it's about 15-20 frames per second for stop motion. Early silent films like 'Le Voyage Dans La Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902)' had a frame rate of about 14-24 fps which was enough for motion but was perceived as a jerky motion. If the images are fast enough, the resulting motion will appear continuous. However if the images appear slow, the motion will look jerky and very uncomfortable to watch. Typical frame rates for movies and video are approx 25 frames per second. This means that the eye and brain only have 0.04 seconds to process the information for each individual frame.
There are many examples on websites such as 'YouTube' like the music video for the artist 'Delta Heavy' called 'Get by'. Another very good example who one on my favorite animators is called 'Pez' where he'd done a human skateboard on stop motion. Frame rate The phenakistoscope was an early animation device that was invented by the name of Joseph Plateau in 1841 that used the persistence of vision principle to create an illusion of motion. The phenakistoscope used a spinning disc attached vertically to a handle. Arrayed around the disc's center was a series of drawings showing phases of the animation, and cut through it was a series of equally spaced radial slits. The user would spin the disc and look through the moving slits at the disc's reflection in a mirror. The scanning of the slits across the reflected images kept them from simply blurring together, so that the user would see a rapid succession of images that appeared to be a single moving picture. Phenakitoscope Now we have the Development of moving pictures.. 1800 1849 Zoetrope A zoetrope is a device that produces the illusion of motion from a rapid succession of static pictures. The modern zoetrope was invented in 1833 by British mathematician William George Horner. The daedalum failed to become popular until the 1860s, when it was patented by both English and American makers, including Milton Bradley. The American developer William F. Lincoln named his toy the "zoetrope", meaning "wheel of life. The zoetrope consists of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. On the inner surface of the cylinder is a band with images from a set of sequenced pictures. As the cylinder spins, the user looks through the slits at the pictures across. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from simply blurring together, and the user sees a rapid succession of images, producing the illusion of motion. 1833 Praxinoscope The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud. Like the zoetrope, it used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder. The praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in position as the wheel turned. Someone looking in the mirrors would therefore see a rapid succession of images producing the illusion of motion, with a brighter and less distorted picture than the zoetrope offered. A projecting praxinoscope, 1882 1877 The zoopraxiscope is an early device for displaying motion pictures. Created by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879, it may be considered the first movie projector. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion. The stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. The device appears to have been one of the primary inspirations for Thomas Edison and William Kennedy Dickson's Kinetoscope, the first commercial film exhibition system. Zoopraxiscope 1879 Kinetoscope The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector but introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter. First described in conceptual terms by U.S. inventor Thomas Edison in 1888, it was largely developed by his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson between 1889 and 1892.
On April 14, 1894, the first commercial exhibition of motion pictures in history was given in New York City, using ten Kinetoscopes. Instrumental to the birth of American movie culture, the Kinetoscope also had a major impact in Europe 1888 1900 Here are the famous names that didn't just affect the history of animation , but also influenced and changed animation as we know it. George Melies was a french film-maker famous for being the first film-maker in developing stop motion techniques with a camera. Melies was also the first in the use of special effects, accidentally discovered the substitution stop trick in 1896, and was one of the first filmmakers to use multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand-painted color in his work. Two of his most well-known films are A Trip to the Moon (1902) and The Impossible Voyage (1904). Both stories involve strange, surreal voyages, somewhat in the style of Jules Verne, and are considered among the most important early science fiction films, though their approach is closer to fantasy. Méliès was also an early pioneer of horror cinema, which can be traced back to his Le Manoir du diable (1896). George Melies Here's his first film using stop motion. His work is still influential to this day using stop motion and animators use this on a daily basis, for example wallace and gromit made by Nike Park. Emile Cohl Emile Cohl was a french cartoonist and animator widely known for making what is considered the first hand drawn cartoon ever called 'Fantasmagorie'. He started making the film from February to May or June 1908. This is considered the first fully animated film ever made. It was made up of 700 drawings, each of which was double-exposed, leading to a running time of almost two minutes. Despite the short running time, the piece was packed with material devised in a "stream of consciousness" style. Borrowed from J. Stuart Blackton, the "chalk-line effect" filming black lines on white paper, then reversing the negative to make it look like white chalk on a black chalkboard. Blackton and Cohl also borrowed some techniques from Georges Melies, such as the stop trick. This is the cartoon 'Fantasmagorie'. There are alot of examples of animation very similar to Cohl's work, like RSA Animate, where they've used stop motion for their hand drawn animation, just like Cohl's work. Ladislaw Starewicz Vladislav Starevich was a Polish-Russian and French stop-motion animator who used insects and other animals as his protagonists. Starevich, like other artists, used stop motion or stop animation as his technique for his first creation 'A cameramans revenge' this was about a married couple who are both being unfaithful to one another and a camera man who recently lost his women to the married husband secretly films the husband cheating, then shows him cheating in the local cinema. This was filmed with very realistic animated beatles with stop motion. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are often used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop motion animation using plasticine is called clay animation or "clay mation". Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motion films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic effect. This is 'a cameramans revenge', when viewing this video, there are many modern examples that are similar and possibly got influenced by this film like 'wallace and gromit' where they have used stop motiton or clay mation. Winsor McKay Winsor Zenic McKay was an American cartoonist and animator, best known for the animated cartoon Gertie the Dinosaur in 1914.
McCay set a standard followed by Walt Disney and others in later decades, his work influenced generations of artists, including creators such as William Joyce, André LeBlanc and Chris Ware.
The star of McCay's groundbreaking animated film Gertie the Dinosaur is classified by film and animation historians as the first cartoon character created especially for film to display a unique, realistic personality. The appearance of a true character distinguished it from earlier animated "trick films", such as those of Blackton and Cohl, and makes it the predecessor to later popular cartoons such as those by Walt Disney and Max Fleischer like mikey mouse.The
film was also the first to be created using keyframe animation.
A key frame in animation and filmmaking is a drawing that defines the starting and ending points of any smooth transition. The drawings are called "frames" because their position in time is measured in frames on a strip of film. A sequence of keyframes defines which movement the viewer will see, whereas the position of the keyframes on the film, video or animation defines the timing of the movement. Rather than draw each frame in sequence, he would start by drawing Gertie's key poses, and then go back and fill in the frames between. When looking back at this video, there are alot of modern examples of 'Gertie the dinosaur', like 'MikeyMouse', where in the film there's a character that everyone loves with a realistic personality that people can compare the film too. And if the character was real, it would be very famous just like Mikey Mouse with all the merchandise and disney world. Earl Hud and John Bray The Bobby Bumps cartoons were the first to be produced using the cel animation process. Previously, animated cartoons were produced using paper animation: a new drawing was made for each frame of film. With cel animation, Bray drew his characters on clear sheets of celluloid, which he placed over still backgrounds during the photography process. Cel animation revolutionized the animation industry and has changed the way we watch animation today. Earl Hud and John Bray were american film producers who worked for 'Bray Productions' which was founded in 1914 but John Bray himself.
Bobby Bumps was the titular character of a series of silent animated short subjects produced by Bray Productions from 1915-25. This is the episode 'Bobby Bumps' starts a lodge, as you can see they have kept the same background when they don't need to change it and move the object(s) that only need changing, this is 'cel animation. Walt Disney Walter "Walt" Disney was an American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, entrepreneur, entertainer, international icon, and philanthropist, well known for his influence in the field of entertainment during the 20th century. Disney is particularly noted as a film producer and a popular showman, as well as an innovator in animation and theme park design. He and his staff created some of the world's most
well-known fictional characters including Mickey Mouse, for whom Disney himself provided the
original voice. The Twelve Basic Principles of Animation is a set of principles of animation introduced by the Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Johnston and Thomas in turn based their book on the work of the leading Disney animators from the 1930s onwards, and their effort to produce more realistic animations.
The main purpose of the principles was to produce an illusion of characters adhering to the basic laws of physics, but
they also dealt with more abstract issues, such as emotional timing and character appeal. The book and its
principles have become generally adopted, and have been referred to as the "Bible of animation". Here's one
of the 12 which i think is most important. It's Staging, This principle is known in theatre and film. Its purpose is to direct the audience's attention, and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene; what is happening, and what is about to happen. Johnston and Thomas defined it as "the presentation of any idea so that it is completely and unmistakably clear", whether that idea is an action, a personality, an expression or a mood. This can be done by various means, such as the placement of a character in the frame, the use of light and shadow, and the angle and position of the camera, this is all called mis en scene. The essence of this principle is keeping focus on what is relevant, and avoiding unnecessary detail. The next slide shows the example of staging. This is from Disney's very popular animated series 'Mickey Mouse' The Moving Day (1936). From the 12 principles on animation, i decided to write about 'staging', this is because i think it's the most important principle of the 12, this is because staging can bring different types of audiences to watch the programme and also change the mood of the viewers watching. Take this scene for example, there are a lot of examples of staging i can write about in just this scene. When looking at the larger character on the right, you can already see he has more of a protagonist role in this scene as he's much more taller and looks very much 'the man' here as he's looking down at the two smaller characters who both look very scared. Also, when looking at the taller character, when looking at his clothes you can see they're all gloomy, boring colors, in the media, colors of what characters are wearing often describe their personality so without even watching this film, you can tell he's not a happy character. Then looking at the duck character, he's wearing a sailors outfit which is eye catching for the audience so you can tell he's a crazy character but happy with the vibrant colors.
When looking at the scene of this frame, the use of light and shadows are far more darker than any other happy scene, this is done on purpose to change the mood of the audience to get an emotional response and to engage the audience more. Part B analyzing an example of animation... This is 'ASDF movie', i decided i want to analyze this as I'm a very big fan of this type of animation, which is called 'Flash animation' or 'Flash cartoon' which is created using Adobe Flash or similar animation software. Other examples of Flash include 'Salad fingers' or 'Animator vs animation'. They decided to use the simple but effective approach like flash offers as the style the creators have used is very subtle and have purposely included subtle humor which people find very funny. When looking at the movie, you can see it's very simple with a white background and the objects used have been created so they look like they have been hand drawn. This also targets a large audience from around 12-30+ as it's on YouTube, anyone can watch which can be shown on mobiles, tablets and laptops which alot of the target audience will have.

Looking back at the history of animation, i feel that this short film has been influenced by the first ever animated film 'fantasmagorie' for a number of reasons, firstly, when looking at Cohl's fantasmagorie, you can see both short films have a simple outline for their objects, this is because when animation was first around, it was only hand drawn, therefor it had no special effects or dialogue like it has now, and ASDF have kept that the same so it hasn't just got new updated features, like updated graphics and computer animation but it also has a bit of history in like the hand drawn animation effect which could appeal to a different kind of audience. As you can see from the previous slide which showed an example of stop motion that it took 2 days to finalise, but the end result was worth it. Looking at other stop motion videos like 'OK go's' music video - End Love the video, including both the band's main performance and the skyline shots, was filmed in a continuous shot consisting of over one million frames of film. The average time compression on the video for most of OK Go's parts is about 270x from real-time, while the slowed down segments were 32 times slower than real-time. As you can see, filming stop motion films can take a lot of effort and time but for my project, i also want to film stop motion as I'm a very big fan of the technique. THANKS FOR WATCHING.
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