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Transcript of Chemistry Portfolio
What it Takes
My Journey through Chemistry
By: Deepti Agnihotri, Block B
Class of 2016
For your Chem RE project, you will have to design an experiment for a certain topic. For my project, we created a paper chromatography experiment that showed the different pigments of Swiss Chard. We discovered that different types of solutions break down the pigments differently and produced different chromatograms.
In this picture,
each strip is in
a different ratio
Tip: Take pictures of your experiments and protoypes so you can easily compare them and find aspects that need work.
Physics and the Spring Scale
My freshman year of SMCS was the most challenging year of my school life, but I loved it till the very end because I learned so much in such little time. My pot o' golden knowledge increased exponentially ;) I hope this snapshot of my journey will help you in yours. But in the end, all you have to do is work hard and work strong, and the treasure will come automatically.
Good Luck! :-)
Traveling Through Chemistry and Beyond: A SMCS Survival Guide
This semester of school was a lot like a roller coaster ride. It had its ups and downs, but it was also a lot of fun. Especially in chemistry, it was a lot of work, but I learned a lot. There were many challenges and overcoming them took a lot of practice, patience, and positivity
During 9th grade, you not only get to learn about and use different instruments, you get a chance to create some as well! One of the biggest projects we did in physics was making our own spring scale. We calibrated it, used it find an unknown value, propogated its uncertainties, and even made a video about it! All of the things we learned in Physics came together in one project, from vectors, to coefficients of friction, to force.
Tip: Propogating and calculating uncertainties can be a pain. So learn to do it correctly to save yourself from additional woe. Use proper significant figures too. Significant figures convey how accurate your data really is
In R&E, you will work with your peers to design and create instruments that complete a certain task. It's challenging and fun at the same time!
In SMCS, you will get to "carefully experiment" with sophisticated instruments ;) But always remember to stay safe and follow all the rules!
Throughout second semester, all you freshie babies will be exposed to a tremendous amount of material in a short amount of time. Of the topics you will be learning, some include Stoichiometry, Polarity, Equilibrium, ICE Boxes, and Redox Reactions. These are all extremely important topics, and learning these will help to understand other topics as well.
Tip: PAY ATTENTION AND DO THE WORK. YOU WILL THANK YOURSELF LATER :)
Chemical Equilibrium in a reaction occurs when the consumption of reactants and the formation of products occurs at the same rate. It does not necessarily mean that the concentration of the reactants and products is equal.
The Equilibrium constant is calculated be deriving from the generic chemical equation formula: aA + bB <--> cC dD
where [C] and [D] represent the molar concentrations of the products, c and d represent the number of moles for each, [A] and [B] represent the molar concentrations of the reactants, and a and b represent the number of moles for each.
Tip: This equation is super simple to use and will make solving even the toughest equilibrium problems a breeze. So learn it well and don't forget it!
Writing the Story of Science
Yes, even though this is not English class, you still have to write in science. This means documentation, essays, reports, abstracts, you name it. But never fear! SMCS is here to help you get through it. You will be exposed to different types of writing formats and mediums that you will be a pro in no time.
A little snippet
of my Chem RE
Journal! All that
data on paper
Tip: Be concise and to the point. In High School and especially in SMCS, quality is more important than quantity. And be honest. In science, you don't fail, you succeed in proving that way doesn't work.
The Dupont Science Essay is a national competition in which students write a formal essay that fits into one of four categories: Feeding the world, building a secure energy future, protecting people and the environment, and innovation. I chose to write protecting water resources because I have personally seen how people suffer from water shortages and go through great ordeals just to get enough water for their family for a day. I felt really connected to this topic and put my heart and soul into writing about it. Scientific writing is not just about analyzing data, it is also about using scientific knowledge to create a strong viable arguement and using it to inform and convince an audience.
We learned many topics in chemistry, but let's now take a closer look into the things I enjoyed the most and the things that were probably the most....painful.....;)
Ahh, stoichiometry, the foundation of all things chemistry. Stoichiometry is like a coconut, it may seem hard and tough at first, but once you get the hang of it, chemistry will seem soft and sweet. Just remember to always balance your equations before doing anything :)
This was the concept map I created to organize and connect all the topics related to chemistry. It seemed like a chore but it really helped to put things in perspective and connect topics together!
This Project Can Be FUN! Just Don't Procrastinate ;)
Science Montgomery is a requirement of 9th grade SMCS. And it's not always very fun for people because they leave it off until the last minute. But if you take time on this project, and carefully document what happened throughout your project. You will know your project more than you could ever imagine.
Tip: Start on your project now! And keep a journal too. It may become a requirement later on;)
One of the moost exciting events of your freshman year will be your trip to Lake Needwood. That's where you will be able to meet all the SMCS students from Blair High School. You will be solving problems together and collecting data. After you come back, you will use the data you collected to write a report analyzing your data.
Tip: When analyzing data, don't tell a story. Make connections and draw conclusions based off of your findings. That's what data analysis is all about! Make boxplots, graphs (don't connect the dots unless you have a mathematical formula!), 5 number summaries of your data when applicable to help visualize what your data means.
Overview: Slides 1-3
Experimental Design: Slides 4-5
Intruments: Slides 6-8
Data Analysis: Slides 9
Chemistry: Slides 10-12
Stoichiometry: Slide 13
Polarity: Slide 14
Equilibrium: Slide 15-17
ICE Boxes: Slide 18-21
Redox Reactions: Slides 22-23
Connections: Slide 24-28
Writing: Slides 29-31
Final Tips: Slide 32
Finish Line: Slide 33
Table of Contents
Molecular polarity gives us insight as to how atoms bond and repel each other. Polar molecules have an unequal sharing of electrons that causes them to form dipoles and have partial charges, where one end of the molecule is slightly more negative or positive than the other. For our Chem RE project, the polarity of the solution determined how far it would travel up the strip of paper for our paper chromatography.
Our first lesson on polarity ^_^
Introduction to Equilibrium
Le Chatlier's Principal
Le Chatlier's Principal describes how the equilibrium constant of a reaction can be altered in certain situations.
Le Chatelier's principle states that when a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by a change of temperature, pressure, or a concentration, the system shifts in equilibrium composition in a way that tends to counteract this change of variable.
This principal can be used to manipulate a reaction a certain way. For example, increasing the concentration of reactants can cause more products to form, shifting the equilibrium constant towards the products side.
Tip: Remember, this principal works inversely. The change you make to the reaction will "shift" the equilibrium constant to the other side.
ICE Boxes are one of the most useful tools in chemistry. Given a certain initial or final condition of the reaction, ICE Boxes can be used to determine the concentrations of the substances at equilibrium
In ICE Boxes:
I stands for the initial concentration of the reactants and products
C stands for change in concentrations, and is usually designated by an unknown variable like x. The reaction is usually stated to be forward or backwards and the sign of the change is reflected by that. For example, in a forward reaction, change in reactants would be negative, and change in products would be positive
E stands for Equilibrium, which is calculated by adding the initial concentrations and the change.
ICE Boxes come A lot of ICE
in real handy boxes!
when solving <--
titration problems -->
Redox stands for Oxidation Reduction reactions in which there is a transfer of electrons between the substances. In the reaction, the substance that loses electrons is oxidized and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. The overall number of electrons in the entire reaction does not change.
Tip: Even though it may seem that the substance that gains electrons is "reduced" but a great way to remember the redox definitions is "OIL RIG"
Oxidation Is Reduction
Reduction is Loss
Solving Through Redox
1. Write the net ionic equation, emitting spectator ions
2. Find the oxidation numbers of each substance and identify which atoms are oxidized and which are reduced
3. Write the half reactions for the net equation: write the oxidizing and reduction equations as 2 separate equations
4. Balance the atoms (adjust coefficients) and charges
5. Add the balanced half reactions, cancel out any redundant electrons and return spectator ions
Some of the redox practice we did this year :-) This was personally my favorite part of chemistry because it was simpler than the other things we learned but fun too!
My Needwood Report!
Always be careful!
This year was also the first time I was exposed to computer science and it changed my life! There were so many things we learned, one of the most fun and helpful being learning how to model projects and situations in different platforms and formats. For our Chem RE project, we modelled the rate at which a solvent travelled up a strip of chromatography paper in Stella. We determined our components experimentally but our model portrayed how the rate at which a different solvents travelled up the same paper over time. We were able to see how more alcohol in our solution caused the overall rate to decrease, allowing us to make an accurate analysis of our solvents' efficiency and ability.
Chem R&E and Stella
Projectile Motion and Python, Excel, and Stella
Way back when in first semester, we learned about projectile motion in physics. We learned about the different forces and energies involved, and we also learned how to model it in 3 different platforms in computer science: Python, Excel, and Stella. Personally, this was my favortie part of computer science because we learned so many ways to visualize and look at the same process. We also went at a nice pace, first starting off simple, modelling projectile motion without air resistance, and then adding that on later as well once we fully grasped and understood our first models.
Tip: Honestly, NO ONE likes Stella. It can be difficult sometimes, but one way to make it easier is to start off SIMPLE. Build a small model that shows one thing, make sure it works and then add things on. It's easier to build upon something with a strong foundation than it is to make a large but faulty model that needs to be fixed in many areas.
Projectile Motion With Air Resistance in Python
Projectile Motion with Air Reistance in Excel
A little snippet of my DuPont essay. There were many drafts. Many. Many. Many drafts
There will be times throughout the year where you will feel like giving up. Like it's not worth it. Like it's too hard. And to that I want to say you have to PICK YOURSELF UP. Don't ever let stress or the fear of failure keep you down. If you are struggling with a topic, ask teachers for help. It may seem scary at first, but in the end, you're probably helping a lot more people than you think. Have the guts to say you don't understand something, because that will help you get ahead.
Your friends and peers are here to motivate you and help you succeed. Team work is a HUGE part of SMCS and it is crucial that you are open to your peers, yor teachers, and yourself. Voice your ideas but also be open to admitting that you are wrong. It may seem like your peers are your competition, but they are the ones that will lead you to success.
A word of advice: don't even chase success, chase excellence. Grades may seem like the biggest thing in the world, but don't just know something because it's on a test. Learn every aspect about it and understand it completely. The good grades will follow.
Lastly, be organized and DON'T PROCRASTINATE. YOU WILL GET A LOT MORE SLEEP THIS WAY. I speak form experience. But most importantly, have fun in school. These years won't come back, so make the most out of what you can. :)