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Unit 3 - Nutrition
Transcript of Unit 3 - Nutrition
6 Essential Nutrients
Only these 3
Food Guide Pyramid
Units of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the body.
Calories are found in the items we consume and provide us with energy. The efficiency of this process will depend on the nutritional source and quantities of the foods that we eat.
The items in food that your body uses to fuel and maintain itself
of your total caloric intake
Saturated - BAD - Unsaturated - GOOD
Trans fats - WORST!
of your total caloric intake
SLOWLY DIGESTED LONG TERM ENERGY
(grains, pasta, beans, root vegetables)
SHORT TERM ENERGY
(sugars, processed foods)
Carries nutrients and removes waste, cleans body by removing toxins; regulates body temperature; dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals.
primary form of fat
found in the blood,
used to build cells and certain hormones
of your total caloric intake
Other food & nutritional issues
Genetically modified foods
Aim for a healthy weight
60 min. of activity per day
Eat a variety of grains
Eat your fruits and veggies
Keep food safe to eat
Keep cholesterol intake low
Don't drink your calories
the rate at which which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from food
a measure of body weight relative to height, where an estimate of lean body tissue versus non-lean body tissue is determined
drive to eat, prompted by the body's need for food
desire for food
hunger versus appetite
a lifestyle where a person eats mostly or exclusively plant based foods
UNIT 3 - Nutrition
Essential ammino acids are amino acids that the body must get from food because our bodies cannot make them on its own
These include the amino acids
our body can produce on its own
a complete protein is commonly from an animal source, like meat, eggs, and dairy products, and contain all 9 essential ammino acids.
Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins. Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life.
When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body needs a number of amino acids to:
Break down food
Grow and repair body tissue
Perform many other body functions
before you order up these meal items, stop to consider what you're consuming...
...as much saturated fat
as 68 strips of bacon
...131 total grams of fat
...153 grams of sugar
THE BIG WINNER IS...
Coldstone Peanut butter and chocolate (PB&C) Shake
24 fl. ounces
(same as 30 chewy chips ahoy cookies)
131 g fat (68 g saturated)
153 g sugars
before you order, think about what you're really putting into your body
McDonalds Big Mac
Sub (12 inch, plain)
How can you make small changes that have positive health impacts on the foods you like?
make smart choices when dining out
you might be eating a nutritional disaster and not know it!
One serving =
half a cup!
what about snacks?
Good cholesterol that picks up excess cholestrol in the blood and takes it back to the liver for removal.
Healthy level is
GREATER THAN 40.
Carries cholesterol and deposits it on the walls of arteries, and is considered harmful.
Healthy level is
LESS THAN 100
Nutritional information is based off of recommended daily allowance (RDA's), which are the nttrients that the body needs to repair damage and regain normal functioning
using radiation to kill bacteria, viruses, and insects on food
1 Cup of
Nobody just carries around measuring cups, tablespoons, and all sorts of other gadgets designed to measure food and liquid amounts. (At least I hope not)
Observe the list of food items below. Each of those items constitutes what is commonly advertised as a serving size for those items. With a partner or a small group, think of ways you can use your hands to substitute for the measuring devices and measure out the amounts of food below. Be creative!
1 or 2 ounces of
tiny snack food
(nuts, hard candy)
1 to 2 ounces of
crunchy snack food
(chips, pretzels, popcorn)
1 teaspoon of
(butter, ketchup, mayo)
3 ounces of steak
A FIST = 1 Cup
Your fist is approximately the size of one cup. The USDA counts one half cup of rice, cereal, or pasta as one serving size. So if you compare your fist to a bowl of cereal or spaghetti, you are probably having 2 servings in your dish.
A HANDFUL = 1 or 2 ounces of
tiny snack food
A handful is approximately the same size as one or two ounces of small snack foods like hard candy or nuts
TWO HANDFULS = 1 to 2 ounces
of crunchy snack food
Chips, pretzels, popcorn, and other types of crunchy snack foods are more light and airy than nuts and other dense snack foods. So when trying to determine serving sizes for these types of products, two handfuls is equal to one serving size
A THUMB = one ounce of cheese
Use your thumb to estimate how much cheese you are eating. Hard cheeses, such as cheddar, will weigh more than soft cheeses, such as mozzarella, but in general, one thumb-sized chunk is approximately one ounce. The USDA states that 1.5 to 2 ounces of cheese is one serving
THUMB TIP = One teaspoon
Products such as butter, peanut butter, and mayonnaise are very high in fat. If you smear any of these products onto your food, use the tip of your thumb to estimate the equivalent of a teaspoon
A PALM = 3 ounces of meat
One serving of meat is a lot smaller than you'd expect. The USDA says that 2.5 to 3 ounces constitutes a serving of meat, chicken, or fish. A persons palm, minus the fingers and thumb, is approximately the same size as 3 ounces
Everyone is looking for the next big diet fad. Some people take it to the extremes. Having your weight go up and down is not good for your body.
Actors are famous for having to mold their body to fit a role, whether it means to gain or lose weight or fat in order to portray a character. However, what impact will this have on their short term and long term health if they regularly have to do this?
Lower cholesterol and control blood sugar levels
Increase bulk in feces and prevents constipation and other bowel problems
DIGESTIVE TRACT HEALTH MAINTENANCE
moves waste through system
Dietary Intake Assignment
Log intake of nutrients for 3 days - see assignment
What does 200 calories look like?
Below are pictures which constitute 200 calories of various food items. You'll be surprised by just how much or how little 200 calories can be for some foods!
Hinsdale Central Health Education
So how many calorioes do you need each day?
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Types & Symptoms of Eating Disorders
Eating disorders -- such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder – include extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors surrounding weight and food issues. Eating disorders are serious emotional and physical problems that can have life-threatening consequences for females and males.
Anorexia Nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss.
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder not otherwise specified and is characterized by recurrent binge eating without the regular use of compensatory measures to counter the binge eating. Learn more.
A person does not have to be diagnosed with Anorexia, Bulimia or BED to have an eating disorder. An eating disorder can include a combination of signs and symptoms but not meet the full criteria.
Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (E.D.N.O.S.)
Approximately 90-95% of anorexia nervosa sufferers are girls and women.
Between 0.5–1% of American women suffer from anorexia nervosa.
Anorexia nervosa is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in young women.
Between 5-20% of individuals struggling with anorexia nervosa will die. The probabilities of death increases within that range depending on the length of the condition.
Anorexia nervosa has one of the highest death rates of any mental health condition.
Anorexia nervosa typically appears in early to mid-adolescence.
Bulimia Nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by a cycle of bingeing and compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting designed to undo or compensate for the effects of binge eating.
Nightline from ABC News : EDNOS: Most Dangerous, Unheard of Eating Disorder
The following are some common examples of eating disorders not otherwise specified, but your experience may be different. If you are concerned about your eating and exercise habits and your thoughts and emotions concerning food, activity and body image, we urge you to consult an ED expert.
Menstruation is still occurring despite meeting all other criteria for anorexia nervosa.
All conditions are present to qualify for anorexia nervosa except the individual's current weight is in the normal range or above.
Purging or other compensatory behaviors are not occurring at a frequency less than the strict criteria for bulimia nervosa
Purging without Binging—sometimes known as purging disorder
Chewing and spitting out large amounts of food but not swallowing
The commonality in all of these conditions is the serious emotional and psychological suffering and/or serious problems in areas of work, school or relationships. If something does not seem right, but your experience does not fall into a clear category, you still deserve attention.
Examples of EDNOS
Vitamins & Minerals:
What's the difference?
Oh how times have changed...
Today it seems like there are a million diets out there, and the pressure to look thin (even if it is being depicted at unhealthy levels) is more prevalent than ever. But is that how it always was? THe diet industry was a bit different a few decades ago, and they definitely weren't advocating for weight reduction...
Can you do it without the word bank?
AS THIS QUARTER COMES TO AN END...
let's take a look back at all we've learned
I learned about the different things that can influence the different areas of health in my life.
I learned how to help myself maintain a healthy stress level, and to help someone (including myself) who is struggling with depression or thoughts of suicide.
I learned about the structure and functions of this magnificent machine they call the human body, and how my behaviors can keep these systems working in peak condition.
I learned about the different ways that diseases can be spread or develop, and I know ways to go about preventing many of these diseases or reducing my risk for developing them
I learned about the different components of my nutrtional intake, assessing where I have strengths and areas for improvement for if I ever want to make changes that benefit my health or performance in daily tasks or sports.
I learned about the different health consequences that can impact me now as well as in the future for many different behaviors related to my exercise and dietary habits.
WHAT'S ON TAP FOR NEXT QUARTER?
Things you will learn about...
THe different benefits of regular exercise on your physical, mental/emotional, and social health
Different methods for accomplishing your realistic personal fitness and exercise goals
UNIT 4 - EXERCISE AND FITNESS
UNIT 5 - ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, & OTHER DRUGS (ATOD)
The dangers of living a destructive lifestyle with alcohol, tobacco, and drugs.
Common misconceptions and attitudes regarding ATOD
Refusal skills and other ways to combat peer pressure and media influence
How to get help for youself or someone else who is struggling with addiction to ATOD.
Resources available in the school and community for more education or assistance.
UNIT 6 - HUMAN REPRODUCTION
Male & female reproductive systems, puberty, other changes during adolescence.
Prevention or reduction of unsafe sexual behaviors
Characteristics of healthy and unhealthy relationships, and how to seek help if you're in an unhealthy or unsafe relationship
GOOD JOB SO FAR! ONLY 1 QUARTER LEFT!
"I'm just big boned!"
Eat too many calories? Your body has a way to store them all, believe me. And the excuse that some people are big boned - while it can be true that some people have skeletal frames that are slightly larger and heavier than other people, it will likely only account for a few pounds, NOT the numerous pounds of excess of body fat that is hanging all over someone.
Criticisms of MyPlate
Whole grains - no mention of what kind of grains to eat, or differentiation between complex and simple carbs.
Protein - What constitutes a healthy source of protein? Should hamburgers and hot dogs count, considering they have protein? Why no mention of seafood? What non-meat protein options are there?
vegetables - no distingusihing between potatoes and other vegetables. Do french fries count for this section?
Dairy - MyPlate recommends dairy at every meal, even though there is little if any evidence that a high dairy intake protects against osteoporosis, and a too high of a dairy intake has been linked as being more harm than good.
Misleading Food Labels
For years food companies have gotten away with deceptive, misleading, or flat out false advertising. See how many of the nutritional claims below you've seen before.
A product labeled as “natural” must not contain synthetic or artificial ingredients, according to FDA policy. However, it may still contain pesticides, genetically modified ingredients, high fructose corn syrup and be heavily processed, which negates what many consumers think of as natural.
Both the FDA and USDA have vague rules about this phrase, and have let manufacturers that incorrectly use this claim remain in the marketplace.
Certain "All Natural" deli meats have ingredients that are clearly additives one would not find if they cooked and sliced up their own natural turkey at home. The USDA also lets meat and poultry products claim to be “All Natural” when injected with beef or chicken broth, which not only increases the sodium levels to unnatural and less healthy levels, but the water inflates the weight of the product, increasing the price. "All Natural" is not a label enforced strictly enough at this point to be trusted.
Products like Hunt’s Tomato Sauce and “All Natural” Snapple Tea contain
as an additive.
Hunt’s Tomato Sauce’s claim as being “All Natural” is even more misleading considering the product is made of
reconstituted tomato paste
, and not whole tomatoes crushed soon after being picked, as many would assume.
Some products containing
high-fructose corn syrup
(made through complex chemical industrial processes) are even able to get away with the “All Natural” label.
A “healthy” product must meet certain criteria that limit the amounts of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium, and require specific minimum amounts of vitamins, minerals, or other beneficial nutrients.
However, it may still contain large amounts of sugar, artificial ingredients or preservatives, which may not be healthy at all.
"No Trans Fat"
If a food contains 0.5 grams or less of trans fat per serving, it can claim to be trans-fat “free” or to have “0 grams of trans fats.” However, many people eat double, triple or more of the recommended serving size of foods, which means you may be ingesting 1 gram or more of trans fat per serving, even if it claims to be trans-fat free.
This amount can add up over time, so check the ingredients list for “partially hydrogenated oil” -- if this is listed, the food probably contains a measurable amount of trans fat and is better off avoided -- even if it claims to be “trans-fat free.”
"Made with Whole Grains"
Many products tout they’re a healthy source of whole grains, when in reality refined flour is the first ingredient. The FDA does not define what percentage of grain must be whole in order to use this claim, so be sure “whole grain” or “whole wheat flour” is listed as a primary ingredient.
Typically, you can tell if bread is truly made with whole grains by picking it up; it will be heavier and denser than those with refined grains.
"Made with Real Fruit"
Just because a bottle of juice or box of fruit snacks has pictures of fruit on its label does not mean it contains fruit.
Many products even claim to be “made with real fruit” when they contain only a small portion of fruit concentrate.
"No Added Sugar" or "Low Sugar"
The USDA recommends people limit their added sugar consumption to
10 teaspoons (40g) per day
(based on a 2,000 calorie diet),
about the amount in one 12oz can of Coca-Cola
. Unfortunately, added sugars and their daily value are not disclosed on the Nutrition Facts Panel, making it very difficult for consumers to determine the amount of sugar that has been added to products like yogurt, canned fruit, and juice drinks.
Reduced sugar and sugar-free claims are regulated by the FDA, but the term “lightly sweetened” is not. If a product claims to be “lightly sweetened,” it could technically contain any amount of sugar.
proteins contain amino acids
RDA RECOMMENDATION FOR
A 2000 CALORIE DIET:
: No RDA Established
RDA RECOMMENDATION FOR
A 2000 CALORIE DIET:
RDA RECOMMENDATION FOR
A 2000 CALORIE DIET:
(meaning they are made from living organisms and can be broken down by heat, acid, or air)
that help with help with numerous body functions. Can be water soluble (B&C) or fat soluble (A, D, E, K)
(absorbed into the food from the earth, soil, and water and maintain their chemical structure throughout digestion)
that help the body grow, develop, repair and maintain proper levels of health and functioning.
HOW MUCH WATER DO YOU NEED?
Approximately 80% of our water intake comes from drinking water and other beverages, and the other 20% comes from food)
While it is no longer believed that we need 6-8 glasses of water per day, it is still true that each person should be consuming enough fluids to prevent dehydration and allow the body to function properly
FATS - CARBOHYDRATES - PROTEIN
VITAMINS - MINERALS - WATER
These are the
Remember that those suggestions are simply
. The amount you need may also be influenced by how many calories you need to reach any
you may have set, as well as the proper source and amount of calories to keep your
mental and emotional health
in a healthy place. Other factors, such as
diseases, or health conditions/restrictions
could influence this goal as well.
BEFORE STARTING ANY CALORIE TRACKING REGIMIN WITH THE GOAL OF GAINING OR LOSING WEIGHT YOU SHOULD ALWAYS CONSULT WITH YOUR PARENTS AND DOCTOR BEFORE STARTING ANY WEIGHT GAIN/LOSS PLAN.
Calorie counting is
for everyone, especially those who may have or be at risk for eating disorders. Again,
talk with health professionals
to decide what the best course of action is to maintain your health.
(Don't worry, regardless of your current diet and exercise status and goals, I still think you're awesome.)
Factors that influence your metabolism:
Drugs (Alcohol, tobacco, prescription, OTC, and illegal drugs)
Hormonal levels or imbalances
Endocrine system issues
Do you know what you're putting into your body? Is it safe? Is it FDA approved? Are there reliable scientific clinical trials over their use? Is it Doctor prescribed?
The process uses gamma rays, x-rays, or electon beams to reduce or eliminate microorganisms and/or insects. The FDA has recognized the process of food irradiation as being safe. However, skeptics and critics of the process may opt for organic food that does not utilize the process.
"Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination.
GM foods are developed and marketed because there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer of these foods. This is meant to translate into a product with a lower price, greater benefit (in terms of durability or nutritional value) or both. Initially GM seed developers wanted their products to be accepted by producers and have concentrated on innovations that bring direct benefit to farmers (and the food industry generally)."
-Information taken from the World Health Organization (WHO):
Like critics of food irratiation, some are hesitant to consume genetically modified food due to concerns about the safety of consuming the modified food.
As we will see in "The Weight of the Nation", we have media influences coming at us from all angles, often with extreme claims, a gimmick or hook, and many times with information that is not scientifically supported or peer reviewed.
FIRST for women
Common Cover Stories:
"LOSE ____ POUNDS IN ____ DAYS!"
Rapid and unrealistic weight loss
Diets that often tout words like "miracle", "breakthrough", and "detox".
Nutritionally unsound dietary advice
Muscle & Fitness
Whats on the cover:
"Lose weight fast!"
"Gain muscle in ___ days!"
Women: "SEXY!" "HOT!"
Men: "SHREDDED!" "JACKED" "RIPPED"
Same gimmicks and hooks over and over
Celebrities who often have nutritionists and personal trainers guiding their entire diet and exercise regimen; no expertise from many of the cover models in this area
"The diet industry has no reason to solve the problem... Solving the problem puts them out of business."
Elise Taveras, MD, MPH
Pediatrician | Co-Director, Obesity Prevention Program | Harvard Medical School
A cheeseburger? Pizza? Chips? Cookies?
Think outside the box! Little changes add up!
A type of stored fat
comprised of fat and sugar
molecules bound together.
They Store unused calories and provide the body with energy.
Lipids that Circulate in your Blood
Cholesterol & Triglycerides
Cholesterol & triglycerides are types of lipids that help with various body processes. However, consuming too much can cause health issues because they can't dissolve in blood.
< 150mg per decilter
Having a high level of triglycerides, in your blood, can increase your risk of heart disease and various other health complications.
Foods that Increase Triglyceride levels:
Refined carbs, alcohol, baked goods, sugary drinks, and high fat foods