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History of the development of animation
Transcript of History of the development of animation
History Of The Development Of Animation
A1T2 Unit 6
Wikipedia. 2014. Norman Mclaren. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_McLaren. [Accessed 03 June 14]
Moviefone. 2013. Warner Bros Facts. [ONLINE] Available at: http://news.moviefone.com/2013/01/28/warner-bros-90th-anniversary/. [Accessed 03 June 14]
1957 - Hanna Barbera was an American animation studio that dominated American television animation for nearly four decades in the mid-to-late 20th century. It was formed in 1957. It was formed by the creators of Tom and Jerry (William Hanna and Joseph Barbera), also by George Sidney. They are famous for creating cartoons such as: The Flintstones, Yogi Bear, The Jetsons, Scooby-Doo and The Smurfs, which resulted in them earning eight Emmys. Hanna Barbera used techniques such as live action animation for their cartoons and films. They also used the ring around the collar technique, this is wear something covers the cartoons necks so the head can just move as it is cheaper and quicker.
As time progressed you can see the development of animation and I have given a few examples of some significant figures, pioneers and developers who had some sort of impact on the industry to this present day.
1829 - The first pioneer on the timeline is Joseph Plateau. Plateau had the idea to make the Phenakistoscope in 1829 and eventually made it in 1841. The Phenakistoscope is one of the earliest forms of animation as it uses multiple images on a spinning disk to create the illusion of movement. This only works when the disk is spun quickly. It can been seen in the imagery to the right.
1833 - During the invention of the Phenakistoscope, the Zoetrope was being invented by William George Horner in 1833. The Zoetrope has the same concept as the Phenakistoscope but is a cylinder shaped object, it still used the illusion of movement to make a sequence of pictures look like one animation. This can been seen in the video below this text.
1830 - Eadweard Muybridge was born in 1830 in England and died in 1904. He is known for his work on animal locomotion, his studies in motion and his invention of the Zoopraxiscope. Overall Muybridge has had a massive impact on photography and animation. The Zoopraxiscope uses the same idea as the other two inventions on this slide as it used still photographs/drawings played at rapid speeds to create the illusion of movement. Muybridge used it to show the movement of animals, for example - he is famous for his animation of a race horse in motion which proved for the first time that at top speed all feet leave the ground. The movement is very much like a animation GIF file at this present time. Unlike the others he used the Zoopraxiscope to project the film as it was drawn on the film at the time.
1862/1864 - The Lumiere brothers are significant because they are known to be the first film makers of all time. The first film they made and was one of the first movies to exist that people paid to view which was called Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon which stands for Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory. The Lumiere brothers had a massive impact on the film industry. They didn't actually create moving pictures until 1892. Before their film camera, they advanced by implementing film perforations which where originally implemented by Emile Reynaud, who I will move on to next.
1877 - This was the year the animation device called the Praxinoscope was invented, it was known as the successful version of the Zoetrope. It was made by Charles-Emile Reynaud in France. Like the Zoetrope it used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface on a spinning cylinder. It is an improvement of the Zoetrope because it replaced the narrow viewing slits with a inner circle of mirrors.
1888 - In 1888 - 1892 U.S inventor Thomas Edison and his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson developed the Kinetoscope; an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was made for films to be viewed by one person at a time through the peephole viewer at the top of the device. It is known for introducing the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the development of digital video.
1914 - Norman Mclaren made a massive impact on animation and film making and was "a pioneer in a number of areas of animation and filmmaking, including drawn on film animation, visual music, abstract film, pixilation and graphical sound" (Norman Mclaren, Wikipedia, 2014).
1923 - 1923 was the year the Warner Brothers career started taking off. Warner Bro's are an american producer of film, television, and music entertainment. Here is a few examples of their career in the industry -
1930's -first Warner Bro's cartoon 'Sinking In The Bath Tub'.
1934 - Merrie Melodies cartoon is produced in colour.
1944 - Warner Bros buy Leon Schlesingers studio.
1955 - Speed Gonzales wins an academy award.
They are still in the industry to this present day. Warner Bro's used techniques such as cel animation, occasionally use rotoscoping and now use digital techniques. Popular modern films by Warner Bros include Space Jam and The Matrix.
1972 - Aardman animations was formed around 1972 by Peter Lord and David Sproxton, it was originally a low budget project. They are known for their clay animation and have had great success in the industry to this present day. Animations such as - Morph, Chicken Run and Wallace and Grommit are some of their greatest productions.
1937 - Walt Disney is our next developer and is famous across the world. He is an American business magnate, animator, cartoonist, producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor and cultural icon. Mainly known for his contribution to the field of entertainment. Walt pioneered Cel animation with the feature film Snow White in 1937 which almost sent him bankrupt but it was a success because it reached $8,000,000 in the box office. When Snow White was released it triggered what was known as the 'Golden age of animation'.
1901 - Len Lye was born in 1901, he first started to study tribal art in 1922, and worked as an animator for Filmads and experimented with kinetic sculpture. He is known for his experimental films, his films are in archives such as the -
British Film Institute
Museum of Modern Art in NYC
Pacific Film Archive.
He had a big impact on animation as many people understood kinetic movement after Len Lye demonstrated art and methods.
Charlie Grenade, (2013), Walt Disney [ONLINE]. Available at: http://charliegrenade.org/5-things-we-can-learn-from-walt-disney/ [Accessed 05 June 14]
Cyleung, (2010), Phenakistoscope [ONLINE]. Available at: http://intelligentheritage.wordpress.com/2010/10/05/phenakistoscope-the-enlightening-animation-device/ [Accessed 17 June 14]
Jbarta, (2013), Phenakistoscope 3g07690b [ONLINE]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenakistoscope#mediaviewer/File:Phenakistoscope_3g07690b.gif [Accessed 17 June 14]
Rainer Zenz, (2013), Muybridge [ONLINE]. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge#mediaviewer/File:Muybridge-2.jpg [Accessed 17 June 14]
Jo Ward. (2012). Zoetrope Animation. [Online Video]. 05 July. Available from: [Accessed: 17 June 2014]
Early Cinema, (2013), Lumiere Brothers [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.earlycinema.com/pioneers/lumiere_bio.html [Accessed 17 June 14]
TheMeanestCat. (2008). My Praxinoscope. [Online Video]. 29 July. Available from: [Accessed: 17 June 2014]
Anita Busch, (2014), Warner Bros [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.deadline.com/2014/04/warner-bros-taps-former-clinton-press-secretary-dee-dee-myers-as-communications-chief-sue-fleishman-exiting/ [Accessed 17 June 14]
Brendan Bourque-Sheil, (2014), Space Jam [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.nerdtitan.com/2013/04/23/why-we-desperately-need-a-sequel-to-space-jam/ [Accessed 17 June 14]
Spraynasal. (2007). Boogie Doodle. [Online Video]. 19 June. Available from: [Accessed: 17 June 2014]
Mandi Milenko, (2011), Yogi Bear [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.theweeklyvice.com/2011/02/yogi-bear-jailed-for-illegal-fishing.html [Accessed 17 June 14]
Eadweard Muybridge (Rainer Zenz, 2013)
Phenakistoscope (JBarta, 2013)
Phenakistoscope (Cyleung, 2010)
Lumiere Brothers (Early Cinema, 2013)
Warner Bros (Anita Busch, 2014)
Space Jam (Brendan Bourque-Sheil, 2014)
Boogie Doodle, 2007
Walt Disney (Charlie Grenade, 2013)
Yogi Bear (Mandi Milenko, 2011)