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Reading Skills in EAP

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ORIANA GUTIERREZ

on 18 July 2016

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Transcript of Reading Skills in EAP

Developing Reading Skills in EAP Courses
Levels of Reading Comprehension:
Literal:
Micro-skills in Reading Comprehension (Brown, 1992)
Recommended Contents in EAP:
EAP I:
What is Reading?
Analyze the following text,
what are we talking about?
An epic fantasy novel by the American novelist and screenwriter George R. R. Martin. The narrative takes place on the fictional continents of Westeros and Essos where three main stories interweave a dynastic war among several families for control of Westeros, the rising threat of the supernatural Others beyond Westeros' northern border, and the ambition of Daenerys Targaryen, the deposed king's exiled daughter, to assume
the Iron Throne.
is the ability to make meaning
from written texts. It is a complex
activity involving both perception and
thought and consists of two related
processes; word recognition:
related to the process of perceiving how written symbols relate to one’s spoken language.
Comprehension: which is the process
of making sense of words, sentences
and connected text.
Reading:
According to Baker and Brown (1984), we can not define "comprehension" in absolute terms, as something that can be accomplished or not. The levels and ways of interpreting texts are as different as our students.
Involves surface understanding
of the text and knowing what is explicitly stated, including facts
and details.
Everything the reader can answer with a wh- question.
The reader gleans
what is implied or meant by drawing inferences or reading between the
lines. Readers tap into their
background and attach new learning
to old information.
Involves taking what was
said (literal) and meant (interpretative) and extend (apply) a concept or ideas to
a new situation. Readers attempt to elevate or raise their thinking
one more "notch" to a more
critical, analyzing level.
Interpretative:
Applied:
Using reading strategies such as:
scanning and skimming,
note-taking,
mapping, detecting
discourse markers,
guessing the meaning
of words from context, summarizing, intensive and extensive reading,
and activating schemata for
text interpretation.
Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.
(
France gave The Statue of Liberty to USA as a gift:
The Statue of Liberty was given to the USA by France)
Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and
their role in signaling the relationship between and
among clauses.
(i.e., the differentt functions of discourse markers)
Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.
(
France gave The Statue of Liberty to USA as a gift:
The Statue of Liberty was given to the USA by France)
Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and
their role in signaling the relationship between and
among clauses.
(i.e., the differentt functions of discourse markers)

Recognize sound-symbol relationship, grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions, etc.), grammar rules and vocabulary.
Basically, the language as a system.
EAP II:
EAP III:
EAP IV:
Word Classes (articles, nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs...).
Bilingual Dictionary. Morphology (affixes).
Grammatical Cohesion and cohesive devices: adjectives and possessive pronouns, demonstrative and relative pronouns.
Cohesion: anaphora, cataphora and exophora. Discourse Markers.
Reading strategies: previewing, skimming and scanning.
Psycholinguistic strategies for reading comprehension: predicting and inferring. Context clues: definitions, explanations, synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms. Communicative functions.
Main and supporting ideas. Outlining. Graphic Organizers. Summaries. Abstracts. Critical analysis of texts.
What can we get at a literal, interpretative and applied level of analysis?
One morning, in cool blood, I slipped a noose about its neck and hung it to the limb of a tree; - hung it with the tears streaming from my eyes, and with the bitterest remorse at my heart; - hung it because I knew that it had loved me, and because I felt it had given me no reason of offence; - hung it because I knew that in so doing I was committing a sin - a deadly sin that would so jeopardize my immortal soul as to place it - if such a thing wore possible - even beyond the reach of the infinite mercy of the Most Merciful and Most Terrible God.
Excerpt from The Black Cat by Edgar A. Poe:
Strategies for Developing Reading Skills
Whenever we engage students in reading tasks, we have to consider the three stages in the comprehension of written texts:

PRE-READING: comprehension begins prior to reading by activating background knowledge and experiences related to the reading.

READING: active reading: reacting, questioning, arguing, evaluating, and placing a text within one's own experience. It can be difficult to run this kind of process since English reading classes tend to be focused on dictionaries, the text, and the teacher.


AFTER-READING: check students' comprehension and then lead them to a deeper analysis of the text and helping them see into another mind, or to mesh new information into what one already knows.
Pre-Reading Strategies
Making predictions and selections of information.
Integrating prior knowledge.
Skipping insignificant parts.Re-reading and verifying.
Making use of context (or co-text) for guessing.
Breaking words into their component parts.
Reading in chunks for grasping ideas.
Pausing to absorb and internalize the material.
Paraphrasing and intepreting to verify comprehension.
Monitoring: evaluating whether the text, or the reading of it, is meeting their goals.
During Reading Strategies:
TEACHER-DIRECTED GUIDANCE:
Some key vocabulary and ideas in the text are explained: information the students will need,
including key concepts, important vocabulary, and appropriate conceptual framework.

INTERACTIVE APPROACH:
A guided discussion for making a "bridge" between background and new information, plus,
explicit links between prior knowledge and important information in the text.

SETTING A CLEAR PURPOSE FOR READING:
Make students aware of the purpose for reading. At the beginning stages this can be done by the teacher,
but as the reader improves in this process, i.e. awareness-raising strategy, can be left to the readers.

CHOOSING A TYPE OF READING ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE:
Skimming: Reading rapidly for the main points.
Scanning: Reading rapidly to find a specific piece of information.
Extensive reading: Reading a longer text, often for pleasure with emphasis on overall meaning.
Intensive reading: Reading a short text for detailed information.

IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF TEXT TO MAKE READING MORE EFFECTIVE:
Identifying rethorical patterns and types of communicative functions
in texts to locate useful information.
Discussing the text.

Written/Oral Summarizing.
Written/Oral Making questions.
Written/Oral Answering questions.
Written/Oral Filling in forms and charts.
Completing a text.
Creating new products: maps, schematas, essays, summaries, synthesis, songs, movies, pictures, plays, rehearsal projects.
After-Reading Strategies:
Full transcript