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Transcript of Sexual Identity
-in the middle of the spectrum lies bisexuality, which is sexual attraction to persons of both sexes.
-at the end of the spectrum is homosexuality, which is exclusive sexual attraction to persons of one's own sex. Sexual Orientation - the dimension of personality that describes the balance of our sexual attraction to the two sexes.
-three categories of sexual orientation:
3. Bisexual What is sexual identity? Gender Gender - Gender dysphoria: unhappiness caused by discordance between a person's anatomical gender and their gender identity.
-Sex-reassignment surgery: surgery that changes a person's genitals and/or other sexual characteristics.
-Transexual: a transgendered person who seeks to transition to the other sex.
1. Transmen: a female-to male transexual
2. Transwoman: a male-to-female transexual Gender and Appearance -multiple processes that transexual individuals go through to appear as the sex they identify with
1. evaluated psychologically and physically
2. placed in a "real-life experience"
3. given hormones to begin the process of bodily change
4. sex-reassignment surgery
5. follow-up appointments Sex Ed 101 IDENTITY Sexual Orientation Expression Attitudes Self-Presentation Biological? Appearance Association Emotions Beliefs Social? Attraction heterosexual Bisexual Homosexual Sexual attraction spectrum Transwoman (M-to-F) Transman (F-to-M) Self-Presentation and Expression Self- Presentation and Expression Self- Presentation and Expression Self-Presentation and Expression Stereo-typical Attitudes gay men, Transwomen Lesbians, Transmen More emotional
More dramatic Less emotional
Less dramatic Theories of Sexual Orientation -Psychodynamic Theories: attempt to explain the development of a person's sexual orienation in terms of internal mental processes
-Biological Theories: attempt to explain sexual orientation in terms of phenomena such as brain circuitry, hormones, genes, and evolution Socialization Theory -believes social interactions have a lot to do with the building/creating of one's sexual preference
-homosexuality may result from molestation during childhood
-from rape during young adulthood
-from same sex experiences in boarding schools
NOT SUPPORTED BY ENOUGH EVIDENCE
-Feminist Movement example
-Bruce Reimer counter-example Biological Theory:
The Prenatal Hormonal Hypothesis - proposes sexual orientation stems from the sexual differentiation of the brain under the influence of prenatal sex hormones
- everything depends on androgen levels during prenatal development
Fetus brains exposed to high levels of androgen are sexually attracted to women (gynephilic)
Fetus brains exposed to low levels of androgen are sexually attracted to men (androphilic) - It may not be the levels of androgen the fetus brains are exposed to, but the sensitivity to the androgen hormones that may cause "pre-gay" fetuses Bisexuality often used as a self identifier by young people who are on their way to "coming out the closet"
some question that any man is bisexual due to various studies/experiements
However, few researchers doubts the existence of bisexuality in women also due to various studies Prejudice against Bisexuals - also known as biphobia
- reasons why people are prejudice include:
bisexuals are deceiving themselves
incapable of being in a monogamous relationship
responsible for the spread of AIDS - very often struggle with association -Many bisexuals face the most prejudice from others in the gay and lesbian community Masculinity and Feminity -Many ways to express it -Becoming much more fluid in American culture, although we still have the desire to place everyone in a "box" so that we know what they are What are some stereotypes of what is feminine and what is masculine? Cultural Differences The Role of Sexuality Around the World African Countries:
-Female Genital Mutilation
-Strict gender roles
-some of these things are becoming less and less common in more modern times -Gay Rights:
-In recent years, South Africa has been the only country to acknowledge sexual orientation in their Bill of Rights. Debates on the issue have also been centralized to South Africa
-Most countries still outlaw homosexuality
-if it is legal, individuals have no other rights What is Legal Around the World? Dark Blue: Same-sex Marriage Legal
Blue: Partnerships/Cohabitation Legal
Teal: Foreign Same-sex Marriage Recognized
Grey: No Recognition of Same-sex Couples Yellow: Minimal Penalty for Homosexuality
Orange: Heavy Penalty
Rusty Orange: Up to Life in Prison
Maroon: Up to Death Asian Countries:
-Countries with Islam backgrounds and traditons are less likely to have legalized homosexual behavior
-Countries with more philosophical-based religions are more accepting
-Rare for marriage to be legal South and Central America:
-Much more diversity in terms of what is or is not legal
-Most have anti-discrimination laws
-Marriage typically illegal Europe: Homosexuality legal everywhere, lots of anti-discriminations laws Another category sometimes included would be asexual, meaning that a person has no sexual attraction to others. Very rare! Gay Rights in America On a Smaller Scale, in Minnesota! http://minnesota.cbslocal.com/2013/03/13/same-sex-marriage-bill-clears-house-senate-committees/ Constantly more and more of a fight for equality in terms of marriage rights as well as more and more strict penalities for discrimination based on sexual orientation! Same Sex Marriage is Legal in: Massachusetts
Distrtict of Columbia Take Aways What we want you to remember! -There are lots of diverse people and attitudes all over the world
-It is important to stay openminded and try not to be judgemental of others and their differences
-Differences can be scary or seem strange, but ask questions and attempt to grow your understanding
-Different does not mean wrong!
-Ignorance is the enemy!
-Not everyone needs to fit into a "box"
ACCEPTANCE IS KEY! Video:
Reactions or Comments?
SAME LOVE 1. Heterosexuality - People who form sexual relationships primarily, or exclusively with members of the other gender. (Straight)
2. Homosexuality - People who form sexual relationships primarily, or exclusively with members of their own gender. (Gay and Lesbian)
3. Bisexual - The capacity to feel erotic attraction toward or to engage in sexual interaction with both males and females.
4. Transsexual - A person whose gender identity is different from his or her anatomical gender.
5. Transvestite - A person who is sexually stimulated or gratified by wearing the clothes of the other gender.
6. Gay - People who form sexual relationships primarily, or exclusively with members of their own gender.
7. Lesbian - A homosexual female. What types of sexual orientations is there? Ryan Skipper was murder on March 14, 2007, a 25 year old gay Florida man, was murdered in mid-March. According to new reports, Ryan was attacked in his car. He was stabbed twenty times and his body was dumped by a road. One of the men who is accused of the murder, is reported as having said, “Ryan Skipper was messing with him, that Ryan Skipper was a homosexual, so [he] killed him.” Hate Crimes Matthew, who was murdered in an anti-gay hate crime in Wyoming in October 1998.
Two men abducted Matt and drove him to a remote area east of Laramie, Wyoming. He was tied to a split-rail fence where the two men severely assaulted him with the butt of a pistol. He was beaten and left to die in the cold of the night. Almost 18 hours later, he was found by a bicyclist who initially mistook him for a scarecrow. Hate Crimes: Matthew Shepard -78% of anti-gay hate crimes are directed towards men.
-April 18, 2007 in Albany, New York Erin Davies' car was vandalized.
-Went to the police and insurance but insurance replied that the car was still drivable.
-Because of that, the car was visible
-Drove her car around for reactions and responses.:
-"Remove the car."
-"Keep the words for others to see.“
-”Remove the words with a razor blade” FAGBUG Sean Kennedy, 20-year old Sean Kennedy of Greenville, South Carolina was enjoying an evening out with friends. As Sean left a “teen night” event at a local gay bar, a car pulled up, a young man hopped out, then punched him hard enough that his facial bones were broken Sean died the next day from injuries he received in that attack. Hate Crimes