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Definisi dan Konsep Kualitas

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Dian Widayanti

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Definisi dan Konsep Kualitas

Results
Bab 2: Definisi dan Konsep Kualitas
Definisi Kualitas
Ukuran Kebaikan dari produk atau jasa yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan konsumen
Komponen Utama TQM
Metodologi
Outline
Definisi Kualitas
Konsep Kualitas
Evolusi TQM
Dimensi Kualitas
Paper (Latar Belakang, Tujuan, Metodologi, Hasil)
Kesimpulan dan saran





by Dian Widayanti (1006660711)
Armand V. Feigenbaum (1991)
“The total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacture, and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet expectations of the customer”
Joseph Juran (1998)
Fitness For Purpose
1. Memenuhi Persyaratan
2. Kesesuaian terhadap kebutuhan
Pendapat Ahli tentang Kualitas
David A. Garvin (1984)
Pendekatan Transenden (pencapaian untuk standar tertinggi pemuasan kebutuhan)
Pendekatan berdasarkan produk (berbentuk kuantitatif)
Pendekatan berdasarkan konsumen (fitness for use)
Pendekatan manufaktur (pemenuhan design / spesifikasi)
Pendekatan niai (biaya dan harga)
Neal S. Penneys, MD, PhD, MBA St. Louis, Missouri
Quality: Its definition, measurement, and applications in dermatology
Definisi Kualitas dalam Jurnal
Evolusi Manajemen Kualitas
Dimensi Kualitas
by Garvin
Industri Manufaktur
Performance
Feature
Reliability
Conformance
Durability
Serviceability
Aesthetic
Perception
Industri Jasa
Communication
Credibility
Security
Knowing the customer
Tangibles
Reliability
Responsiveness
Competence
Access
Courtesy
Paper
Latar Belakang
Perusahaan-perusahaan mengalami decline dan kemudian bisa memperoleh revitalisasi dengan memperoleh market share dan profitabilitas kembali
Perusahaan Jepang sebagai pendorong, pencetus elemen-elemen TQM:
leadership
management of people
customer focus
use of information and analysis
process improvement
strategic and quality planning
Setelah 20 tahun pelaksanaan TQM, terbukti TQM membawa perubahan positif yang signifikan secara kolektif dari elemen, bukan individual
Tujuan
Meneliti hubungan antara TQM dan Performa Operasional
dari banyak perusahaan manufaktur dengan menggunakan database perusahaan Austalia dan New Zealand
Mengecek validasi komponen TQM
sebagai pemberi prediksi performa dalam organisasi
Melihat tiga komponen terpenting TQM
untuk performa organisasi
Leadership
Core Issue:
Cara menyatukan tujuan
Semangat perubahan
Manajemen lingkungan
Penggunaan ide operator untuk memajukan bisnis
People Management
"People are our everything”
“People are our critical resource”
Core Issue:
training, development, communication, safety, multi-skilling and employee flexibility, employee responsibility and measurement of employee satisfaction
Customer Focus
Mendeskripsikan kebutuhan dan ekspektasi konsumen untuk masa sekarang dan kemungkinan kebutuhan yang akan muncul
Menerapkan customer relationship management yang efektif
Mendeskripsikan kepuasan pelanggan
Strategic Planning
Strategic and Business Planning and Deployment of Plans dalam organisasi
Perhatian organisasi untuk customer
Kebutuhan Operational Performance
Emphasis:
customer driven quality and operational performance excellence sebagai kunci strategi bisnis
Information and Analysis
‘‘scope, management, and use of data and information to maintain a customer focus, to drive quality excellence, and to improve...performance’’ (Malcolm Baldrige National Award Criteria, 1995)
Tujuan:
Membantu organisasi mengolah proses informasi dengan efektif

Literatur TQM mengatakan bahwa organisasi yang secara konsisten mengumpulkan dan menganalisa informasi dengan baik akan lebih sukses
Process Management
Proses perancangan organisasi dan perkenalan barang dan jasa
Proses intergrasi produksi dan pengiriman kebutuhan
Manajemen performa supplier
Performance
Focus:
quality performance, operational and business performance indicators

Core Issue:
customer satisfaction, employee morale, productivity, quality of output and delivery performance
Referensi Jurnal Pembuktian Komponen Utama TQM
Alternative quality improvement practices and organisation performance (Journal of Operations Management)
relates alternative quality improvement approaches to actual operating and financial performance

Results indicate a strong relationship between a quality improvement approach and performance quality.
Identification of the Critical Factors of TQM (1996)
This study has demonstrated how empirical work can provide new insights into Total Quality Management

Tested
using a mail survey
of manufacturing site managers that was conducted in 1994 by the Australian Manufacturing Council (AMC)
Background
Research Hyphotheses
Hypothesis H1
The TQM elements individually and collectively comprise a reliable and valid instrument for measuring TQM practice and performance
Hypothesis H2
There is significantly positive relationship between TQM element strength and operational performance

Sample
Random sample
from
manufacturing sites
that employ more than 20 people and were registered with the Australian Bureau of Statistics, or Statistics New Zealand n 1993
Total respondents (approximately 4000 manufacturing sites)
– 3000 in Australia; 1000 in New Zealand
Survey Instrument
17-page survey
mailed to site managers.
Total 246 questions,
returned
within 10 weeks period.
Developed by a
committee of academics, site managers, chairman of the Australian Quality Awards Foundation
Variety of sources in developing the questions: Malcolm Baldrige National Award Criteria (1994), Deming Prize Criteria, Australian Quality Award Criteria
Data Preparation
Analysis Procedure
A cutoff loading of 0.450
to screen out variables that are weak (8 variables were cutoff,
45 remains)
Once the factor analysis was completed, factor scores were calculated from remaining variables to provide estimates for each 7 constructs
Table 1:
“Strengths” for six independent variable TQM element factors
Factor Loadings:
correlation coefficients between the variables and factors
the basis for imputing a label to different factors.
scale: 0-1
Table 2:
Factor loadings for the 7th element, performance
Bivariate correlation
measure of the relationship between the two variables
measures the strength of their relationship, range from 0-1

Kesimpulan
Kualitas merupakan ukuran kebaikan dari suatu produk atau jasa, dan menjadi sesuatu yang semakin diperlukan sejalan dengan perkembangan zaman.
Model TQM yang diteliti merupakan instrument valid dan dapat digunakan untuk memprediksi performa dalam organisasi.
Tiga elemen utama yang memberikan perubahan positif secara signifikan: Leadership, People Management, Customer Focus

Saran
Membutuhkan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai:
Pengukuran elemen-elemen TQM untuk periode 3-5 tahun kedepan, serta melihat hubungan interaksi antar element dan perkembangannya terhadap waktu.
Pengaruh dari elemen-elemen TQM dan perbaikan terhadap faktor-faktor tersebut, untuk mengubah performa organisasi menjadi lebih baik.
Referensi
Adam, E.E. Jr., 1994. Alternative quality improvement practices and organisation performance. Journal of Operations Manage- ment 12, 27–44.
Ahire, S.L., Goihar, D.Y., Waller, M.A., 1996. Development and validation of TQM implementation constructs. Decision Sci- ences 27 Ž1., 23–56.
Black, S.A., Porter, L.J., 1996. Identification of the critical factors of TQM. Decision Sciences 27 Ž1., 1–21.
Penneys, Neal S., MD, PhD, MBA St. Louis, Missouri. Quality: Its definition, measurement, and applications in dermatology.
Core Issue:
Sets of interlinked processes

Improvement of Process:
foundation of performance improvement
Table 3. Bivariate correlation of the 6 independent variable factors
Full transcript