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Copy of Intro to Carbohydrates

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by

Rogylyn Sumoba

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Intro to Carbohydrates

What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are molecules composed of:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide a source of unable chemical energy for cells
Why Carbohydrates are Important to the Human Body
They give the body energy, typically from the glycogen
Provide fuel for the Central Nervous System and the Muscular System
Glycogen
Main way the body stores glucose for later use.
It is a large molecule produced in the liver, but also stored in the muscle and fat cells.
After carbohydrates are ingested, more glycogen will be produced & released
The muscles use the glycogen present in the muscle cells and in the blood stream
The central nervous system is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Examples of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in food are grouped into 3 categories:
SUGAR
STARCHES
FIBER
How are Carbohydrates structured?
Simplest carbohydrate: Sugar
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Study of compounds containing CARBON

In organic chemistry: SUGAR =
SACCHARIDE

Monosaccharides
: Sugar containing one basic molecule
to form more complex carbohydrates
Ex. Fructose, glucose, galactose

Disaccharides:
Two joined monosaccharides
Ex. Sucrose, maltose, lactose
In humans, it breaks down into very simple carbohydrates (mainly into glucose and fructose via digestive tract) then it is absorbed into blood stream to cells.
It provides fuel for the body to do its job as the body's main energy source and helps the body maintain energy.
How are Carbohydrates used?
Why Carbohydrates are harmful to the Human Body
Carbohydrates are necessary, but too much of one thing can work against you.
Processed food
such as chips, white pasta, cakes, white bread and various kinds of soft drinks are full of
carbohydrates with little nutritional value.
When these foods are processed through different stages of digestion,
nutrition value diminishes
.
The leftover calories that are useless and can cause
weight gain
Simple and Complex Carbohydrates
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
Simple carbohydrates are quick energy sources, but they do not usually supply any other nutrients or fiber
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
Complex carbohydrates often supply energy and other nutrients and fiber that the body needs.
Overall complex carbs are a better choice.
Starch - bread, cereal, potatoes, pasta, rice, and legumes (dried peas and beans)

Fiber - bran, whole-grain foods, raw vegetables and fruit (especially the seeds and skins), legumes, nuts, seeds and popcorn
Sugar - fruit, fruit juice, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, and other sweets
Structure of Carbohydrates
If we want to run or walk- all of those activities are used by carbohydrates.
INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Sumoba, Rogylyn | Lanterna, Donna | Cagape Mirra
Matullano, Jarred | Rodriguez Hannah


Review of Sugars:
Fructose - sugar found in fruits
Glucose - in the blood stream
Galactose - in dairy products
Sucrose - naturally in plants (Sugar cane)
Maltose - in germinating grains
Lactose - found in milk
Your body's #1 Fuel Source
SIMPLE CARBS
SUGARS
Present naturally in fruits, grains, milk and veggies

“OSE” at the end means SUGAR

Examples. fructose/fruit, lactose/milk, maltose/grain, sucrose/table sugar

Breaks down quickly

DOES NOT PROVIDE LONG-TERM ENERGY!!!
ROLE OF CARBS
Body must not convert carbohydrates into:

GLUCOSE: A simple sugar that the body can use. The carbohydrates not burned immediately are stored in the liver as GLYCOGEN (reserves) for later use/

GLYCOGEN not used will convert to FAT
COMPLEX
CARBs
2 Types of
Complex
Starches
many sugars linked together. found in great supply in fruits and grains.
ex. Pumpkins, Pasta, Rice
& Potatoes

Fibers (Insoluble / Soluble)
INSOLUBLE:
Tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits and grains.

SOURCES:
apple skin, broccoli, popcorn, asparagus and oatmeal
Fibers (Soluble)
Components in foods
that give the gummy or gel-like
characteristics to foods.
Ex. The pulp and pectin in fruit
juice used to thicken jellies.
GLYCEMIC INDEX
High Glycemic
CHARACTERISTICS
Fast burning carbohydrates
Short-term energy source
Spikes blood sugar
Increases the risk of OBESITY & DIABETES
Poor Breakfast choice..WHY?
Low Glycemic
CHARACTERISTICS
Slow burning carbohydrates
Long lasting energy source
High Fiber (5+ grams/serving)
Steady blood sugar level
Great breakfast choice..WHY??
Keeps you full longer
Boosts Your Metabolism
SOURCES
Foods high in starch and sugar
Refined/processed foods
Potatoes
White Rice
White Bread
Cakes
Candy
Cookies
Soda
SOURCES
Whole Grain Breads/Pasta
Stone Ground Bread
Pumpernickle Bread
Brown Rice
Steel-Cut Oatmeal
Kashi Products
**Look at total fiber on Food Label
KETOSIS
when you eat carbohydrates, your body turns them into glycogen stores, which are housed in the liver. they can only be replaced by the intake of carbohydrates, and are used to supply your body with energy. Your blood ketone rises when your body doesn't consume enough amounts of carbohydrates to replace the glycogen stores. These ketones are water-soluble compounds created when your body breaks down fat stores for energy. If there is no income of glycogen stores, then your body starts to metabolize fats at a higher rate. This lack of glycogen stores, results in a condition known "KETOSIS" or having abnormally high blood acid levels. If it is not treated soon, the acid in your blood can damage your liver and kidneys.
HYPOGLYEMIA
carbohydrates are the mai source of glucose. As carbohydrates are digested, they are distributed throughout the bloodstream for use or are held in your liver as glycogen stores. When glycogen is worn-out, blood glucose levels drop, resulting in a hypoglycemic state. While hypoglycemia is a common symptom of diabetes, non- diabetes can reach this state by not consuming sufficient carbohydrates. Symptoms of this condition include confusion, dizziness, fatigue, nervousness, shaking and anxiety. Hypoglycemia occurs when your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels drop under 70 mg/dL.
In Addition....
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