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Biomes of South America

By: Daniel S., Noah G., Liam M., and Joel W.

Daniel s

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Biomes of South America

Biomes of South America Introduction There are many biomes in South America. This includes the marine rainforests, alpine, deserts, savannas, grasslands, chaparral, desert-scrub, freshwater, marine, and deciduous desert biomes.

In the following, you will learn about the climate, location, animal and plant adaptions, and see a food web in most of the biomes listed above.
Make sure to pay attention to the facts, because at the end there will be a quiz. The Rainforests The defenition of a rainforest is a region with at least 1750-2000 mm of rain every year that is unevenly distributed. An example of even distribution are monsoons. Climate The climate of tropical rainforests can be described as tropical and wet. The temperature can rarly get above 93 degrees or below 68 degrees. The humidity is mostly between 77-88%. Location Rainforests are found between the tropics of cancer and capricorn, though are mostly near the equater. They cover 6% of the earths surface. Animal and plant adaptions. The adaption of the plants in a rainforest shown are for the plants on the rainforest floor. One is found in only some plants and trees and is the ability twist around with the direction of the sun to catch the max. amount of sunlight, because only 1% of sunlight reaches the forest bottem. Another adaption would be the ability to grow buttress and stilt-like roots for more stability in the wet, loose soil.
Some adaptions for the animals of the rainforest are camoflauge, defenses such as poison, mimicry, and diets containing lots of fruits. Biomes Quiz The Deserts There are two types deserts, Hot and dry deserts and cold deserts. Though depending on where the desert is, the climate could range between the two.South America has a temperate, arid climate. Location Deserts cover one-fifth of the earth's land surface, and are found between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Climate The climate of South America's temperate, arid desert is obviously temperate and arid. Temperatures... Plant and Animal Adaptions Some adaptions for plants in the desert are spiked leaves and thorns for protection against herbivores, and the ability to store water.
Some adaptions for animals in the desert are the abitity to burrow, and being nocturnal. 1. How would you describe the climate?
A. Cold
B. Temperate and arid
C. Tropical and wet
D. Hot and dry 2. Where would you find rainforests? 3. What is the definition of a rainforest? 1. What are the two types of deserts? 2. What is an adaption used by animals in the desert to keep cool or warm? 3. Deserts cover ___-_____ of the Earth's land surface. The Rainforest The Desert By: Daniel S., Noah G., Liam M., and Joel W. The Alpine Biome: The Alpine biome in South America is primarily located along the Andes Mountain range. This biome is located at altitudes mainly above 10,000 feet, and is low in animal and plant life, with only about 200 species of plant located in this biome. Climate: The Alpine is a very cold, , dry climate. Since it exists above 10,000 ft, where oxygen and CO2 levels are low, it limits plant/animal life and leaves temperatures very cold. Summer temperatures range from 10 to 15 degrees celcius, but night temperatures are usually below freezing. Yearly rainfall totals an average of 30 cm. Humidity varies based on altitude. The Marine Marine regions divided into coral reefs, estuaries, and oceans
•Oceans are largest and most diverse of these 3 ecosystems
•Most of oxygen is placed into the air by algae
•Algae is also responsible for consuming most of the carbon dioxide in the air as well
•Ocean is connected to land by the inter-tidal zone
•Because of the changing of the tides, coastal areas are often changing with many marine plant and animals living on the bottom of the ocean and on the shoreline
•Coastal areas that are rocky usually have less animals because only the highest tides will reach the top of the rocks
•In warm shallow waters around the continent of South America and surrounding the islands are called coral reefs
•Coral is a living organism consisting of animals and algae tissues
•Coral uses photosynthesis and also use tentacles to capture micro-organisms and also is host to Octopi, starfish and other mollusks
•Open ocean is called pelagic zone, which is host to many fish and marine animals
•Underneath the pelagic zone is the benthic zone, or deep sea, which hosts silt, sand, and organisms that are slowly decomposing
•Is very cold because of depth and doesn’t receive any sunlight The Marine- continued •Few plants and most of animals are bottom-feeders e.g. starfish, anemone, sponges along with micro organisms
•Deepest part of ocean is abyssal zone which is host to many invertebrae and fish such as coelacanth, which was thought to be extinct but was later found in the Indian Ocean, and many fish that glow-in-the-dark by a process called photoluminescence
•Abyssal zone is very cold because it receives no light and has a high pressure
•Floor has vents that are formed by the moving tectonic plates and they release hydrogen sulfide and other minerals which the bacteria in the zone consume and then the bacteria are consumed by other micro-organisms which are consumed by fish and so on and so forth
•Provides world with ample amounts of food e.g. fish, shark-fin soup, crab legs, & shrimp
•Main animals in marine biome are whales, dolphins, sharks, and seals
•5 adaptations that fish in the marine biome are: sleek bodies to cut down on the friction while they are swimming in the water, gills that allow them to breath the oxygen from the water, eyes placed on the side of their head so they can watch out for predators, fins so they can increase their speed while swimming, and camouflage so that when they see their predators, they can hide
•Most of the smaller fish are herbivores and the bigger fish are carnivores that eat the smaller fish
•Water is warmer near the equator and colder farther from it
•Marine effects the mainland climates because the currents effect all coastal areas and the winds usually match the temperature of the water
•The average temperature of all oceans are usually 39 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius)
•More than half of rain that falls to the Earth lands in the oceans The Marine 1.What are the three regions that the marine biome is divided into? 2.What plant releases the most oxygen into the air? 3.The ocean is connected to land by the _____-____ zone. 4.The main animals in the marine biome are whales, ______, seals, and _______ 5. More than ____ of the rain falls into the ocean.
D.none of the above Bibliography •http://rrms-biomes.tripod.com/id12.html
www.blueplanetbiomes.com Savannas are large grasslands with large trees scattered around the land.
Savannas cover some of South America, but can also be found around the world. And are usually warm to hot in climate.
In the summer, temperatures can reach up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, while winters usually get up to get up to 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Some of the animals that live in the savanna are lions, elephants, giraffes, scorpions, snakes, etc.
The animals that live in the savanna have to be adapted to heat because of the hot summer weather
Plants in the savanna also have to be adapted to the heat, as well as the poor soil quality. This is probably why there aren’t that many trees and bushes on the savanna.
Plants that live on the savanna are Rhodes grass, red oats grass, star grass, lemon grass, and shrubs. The Savanna Chaparrals are characterized with hot, dry summers, and cool, mild winters.
Temperatures in the summer usually get up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit; winters can get as cool as 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Plants in the chaparral have large, hard leaves that can hold in moisture.
Most plants in the chaparral can survive fires, and have roots that are specially made to collect as much water as possible.
Some of the plants that live in the chaparral are poison oak, yucca, scrub oak, and more.
Animals in the chaparral have to be adapted to extreme hot, dry weather.
Some animals that live in the chaparral are horses, horned toads, eagles, honey bees, etc. The Chaparral Freshwater Freshwater ecosystems are places like lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams.
Both plants and algae are important to this biome because they both provide oxygen for the animals that live in these biomes through photosynthesis.
Some plants like cattails and duckweed can grow on the edge of these biomes.
Lots of animals live in the freshwater biome because of all of the water.
Some animals need the movement of the water to survive.
There are a variety of fish, birds, insects, and amphibians that live in the freshwater biomes.
The animals that live here have to be adapted to lots of water. The Grasslands The grasslands of South America have a very changeable climate, with winters that can be cold, cold enough to snow, and summers that can get up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
The grasslands get up to 20-35 inches of rain per year, although most of it comes from melted snow.
Fire is very common, and is usually caused by lightning or human activity.
Animals in the grasslands have to be adapted to survive both the winter and the summer, which means they have to be able to keep warm during the winter, and be able to keep cool and run away from fires in the summer.
Most of the animals here are herbivores, or only eats plants.
These animals are giraffes, zebras, buffalo, etc.
There aren’t very many plants in these regions, seeing as most of the plant population is grass and maybe some small shrubs or trees.
Trees in the grasslands provide some protection from the brutal summer sun.
Some animals that take advantage of these trees are pumas, lions, and other animals like that. Sun Trees (produces fruit) Monkeys Insects Lizards Sun Cactus Food Web Foxes Insects Small Mammals Location: The Alpine biome is not effected by latitude or longitude, for the matter. It is simply determined by altitude. If it is above 10,000 ft, as it is in most cases, and has a cold, dry climate year-round,it would be considered Alpine. The Alpine biomes currently makes up 16%, along with the Arctic biome. Adaptions: Plants may have darker colors to absorb heat.
Grow slowly to maintain nutrients and stay alive.
Long-lived perennial plants are common
Most animals hibernate through the even colder winter season.
More hair and fur to protect from fur.
Camoflauged fur to protect from predators Alpine food web The Alpine 1. Name two of the predators in the Alpine?
2. How much of the Earth does the Alpine make up?
3. The Alpine is commonly located at above which altitude?
4. Long-lived ________ plants are common. The Deciduous Forest biome The Climate: The deciduous forest has a mild, cool climate. It recieves an average of 30-60 in of rain. The average temperature is 50 degrees. There are four distinct seasons, Summer, Winter, Spring, and Autumn. The Location: The deciduous forest is located in most of Eastern North America. Eastern China, Japan, and Southwest Russia also have deciduous forest. In South America, the southern tip is a deciduous forest. Adaptations: Animals use trees as food and water sources
Plants and trees are tall and lean torward sun to recieve sunlight
Animals hibernate during winter
Animals are camoflauged to blend with ground Food Web The Deciduous Forest
1. What are the four distinct seasons in this biome?
2. Where is the deciduous forest biome in South America?
3. What is a common practice for animals to survive the Winter Season?
4. Where is the largest deciduous forest biome in the world? The Savanna
1. What is the savanna mostly covered with?
2. What can tempuratures get up to in the summer?
3. Name three animals that live in the savanna
4. Name an adaptation a plant has to have in order to survive? The Chaparral
1. What adaptation do most plants use to get water
2. Name three plants that live in the chaparral
3. Name two adaptations that animals have
4. Name three animals that live in the chaparral Freshwater
•Freshwater ecosystems are places like lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams. Both plants and algae are important to this biome because they both provide oxygen for the animals that live in these biomes through photosynthesis. Some plants like cattails and duckweed can grow on the edge of these biomes.
•Lots of animals live in the freshwater biome because of all of the water. Some animals need the movement of the water to survive. There are a variety of fish, birds, insects, and amphibians that live in the freshwater biomes. The animals that live here have to be adapted to lots of water. Biomes Quiz (Continued) Freshwater
1.Name 3 kinds of freshwater ecosystems.
2.Why are plants and algae important to these ecosystems?
3.Based on the types of animals that live here, what animals would you expect to see in a freshwater biome?
4.What do some animals need in order to survive Grassland Questions
1.How much rain does the grassland usually get?
2.How does the grassland get most of its rain
3.What do most of the animals in this biome eat
4.What animals take advantage of the shade provided by trees?
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