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psy383_HalluciNOgens

"What do does it takes to get into my headagrins?"
by

Will Moore

on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of psy383_HalluciNOgens

associated with perception
of biological motion



contains multimodal sensory neurons
serotonin
glutamate
VMAT2
NMDAr is an 'associative' molecule
cellular basis for learning & memory
only 5-HT3 is ionotropic!
vessicular monoamine
transporter
packages neurotransmitter
into vessicles
St. Albert and the LSD Revelation Revolution
1938:

Albert Hoffman
synthesizes
LSD-25
while working for Sandoz pharmaceuticals. It is subsequently forgotten.

1943:
A
'peculiar presentiment'
encourages
Hoffman
to re-synthesize the abandoned
molecule
. He notes
strange perceptual distortions
after the synthesis.

April 19th, 1943:

B
i
c
y
c
l
e

D
a
y
5-HT2A
metabotropic
receptors
mGlu2
AMPA receptor: ionotropic
Na channel
+
ligand gated
NMDA receptor: ionotropic
Ca channel
+
+
ligand gated
voltage gated
AND
mGlu2 receptor: metabotropic
Long Term Potentiation
L
S
D
-
2
5

is a

'super-agonist'
(traditional)
"... little by little I could begin to enjoy the unprecedented colors and plays of shapes that persisted behind my closed eyes. Kaleidoscopic, fantastic images surged in on me, alternating, variegated, opening and then closing themselves in circles and spirals, exploding in colored fountains, rearranging and hybridizing themselves in constant flux ..."
~250 ug
(contemporary)
frontal:
expectation
parietal:
if

expectation



p
e
r
c
e
p
t
i
o
n
limbic reset
Form constants:
geometric patterns recurringly observed during hallucinations and altered states of consciousness
First characterized by Heinrich Klüver (of
Klüver-Bucy Syndrome
fame)

marijuana-generated

LSD
Tunnels & Funnels
Spirals
Lattices
(including honeycombs & triangles)
Cobwebs

LSD
computer-generated
(Peck, Lau, & Salzman 2013, Nature Neuroscience)
The primate
amygdala
combines information about space and value
Figure 2: An autoradiagraph from the primary visual cortex in the left side of a macaque monkey brain. The pattern is a radioactive trace of the activity evoked by the image shown to the left. The fovea is represented by the point F on the left hand side of the cortex, and eccentricity increases to the right. Note that concentric circles are approximately mapped to vertical lines and radial lines to horizontal lines.
-1
X
Where do visual hallucinations come from?
a | The location of visual regions in the human cortex, including the primary visual cortex (area V1 in the striate cortex) and the extrastriate cortex in the occipital lobe, and the traditional distinction into two visual cortical pathways that start in area V1 and extend into the temporal lobe (the ventral 'what' or 'object-vision' pathway (1)) or into the parietal lobe (the dorsal 'where' pathway (2))137. b,c | Ventral pathway regions in one individual that were activated significantly at the voxel level (P < 0.0001, uncorrected) in the following contrasts: bodies > faces + houses (shown in green); faces > bodies + houses (shown in red); houses > bodies + faces (shown in blue). In addition, the yellow areas represent the regions that, in a group of people (n = 9), activated significantly in the contrast: intact objects > scrambled objects. All data were processed using SPM5 (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London). Data are shown on top of the PALS human atlas (using CARET software138, 139), in a ventral view of the inflated cortical surface (b) and in a flattened view of the cortical surface (c). The partitioning of retinotopic areas in the striate and extrastriate cortex is shown as included in the PALS atlas140.
(Op de Beeck, Haushofer, & Kanwisher, 2008, Nature Reviews Neuroscience)
'where'
temporal:
audition
occipital:
vision
hypersexuality
visual agnosia
docility
Bilateral lesions of the amygdalae lead to...
amygdala
'cells that fire together wire together'
when a cell simultaneously receives input from neurons conveying different kinds of information, those inputs become '
associated
'
LTP

is central to the roles of both
hippocampus

&

amgygdala

!!!
hyperphagia/orality
inability to recognize objects (or
faces
)
attempting to copulate with
inappropriate targets
placing inappropriate objects in the mouth (and/or attempting to eat them)
essentially, it tells you what to pay attention to
one particular
salient
stimulus for humans is...
other humans
tryptamines

increase
c
o
r
t
i
c
a
l

glutamate
availability
(
even though they are

glutamate

antagonists
!!!
)
posterior superior temporal sulcus
psTS
(e.g., cells that respond to
touch
,
sound
, and
light
)
(e.g., the physical properties that encompass multiple sensory modalities, what makes us ascribe qualities like "
heavy
" or "
dark
" to sad
music
)
T
P
J
Temporal
-
Parietal

Junction
'Theory of Mind'

Mental State Attribution
multimodal neurons tuned to the location of the head in physical space

damage or electrical stimulation elicits perception of a 'presence' (e.g., the feeling of someone looking over your shoulder), or even out of body experiences
FFA
Fusiform Face Area
underneath visible cortex
also encodes objects in areas of personal expertise
(but we are ALL experts at human faces)

damage elicits 'prosopagnosia'
inability to recognize faces
hippocampus
more LTP than anywhere else in the brain
also lots of LTP (less well studied)
n
e
o
c
o
r
t
e
x
essentially
m
u
l
t
i
-
s
e
n
s
o
r
y
?
somatosensory
'what'
LTP is quite frequent
are formed when perceptual and/or conceptual information converges from multiple neurons
consolidation:
become
'labile'
when activated, and can be
reconsolidated
in a new form
reconsolidation:
old memories
new memories
at rest
depolarized
Phencyclidine
Ketamine
(PCP)
Tryptamines
partial agonists
at
5-HT2A receptors
dissociatives

ALSO

increase
c
o
r
t
i
c
a
l

glutamate
availability
Dissociatives
Psilocybin
The brain is riddled with fractal geometry...
States of consciousness?
Altered states?
Just say NO
NMDA receptor antagonists!!!
H
a
l
l
u
c
i

g
e
n

What substances do we regard as such?
What does 'hallucinogen' mean?
How should we group / divide them?
What do they DO?
Definition/Etymology
structural composition
Datura
Stramonium
(Hill et al., 2010)
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny?
actually hallucinogenic
Fractal
WTF?
A
fractal
is an object or quantity that displays
self-similarity
, in a somewhat technical sense, on
all scales
.
The object
need not exhibit exactly the same structure at all scales
, but the
same "type" of structures must appear on all scales
.
A plot of the quantity on a
log-log graph
versus scale then gives a straight line, whose
slope
is said to be the
fractal dimension
.
The prototypical example for a
fractal
is the
length of a coastline measured with different length rulers
. The shorter the ruler, the longer the length measured, a paradox known as the
coastline paradox
.
Weisstein, Eric W. "Fractal." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Fractal.html
text quoted directly, but parsed by wem3
retina
'emotion in motion'
I heard a knock at the front door as soon as I got back to my room. I went to see who it was and when I opened the door, I was in for a surprise. I think that everyone I had ever known was there, even people I had forgotten all about. (This makes me think that Datura has the power to unlock forgotten memories.) I let the hundreds of people in and we all went to my room....which is strange, because I had a very small room, but everyone was there. I was talking to and catching up with everyone. People kept on disappearing and reappearing in random places in my room. People also kept dying, decaying, and eventually disappearing. I was worried, but soon forgot all about it. There was also this guy with a Chick-Fil-A cup as a head. He would keep dying, decaying, and coming back to life. I tried to kick everyone out, but I couldn't seem to get the Chick-Fil-A guy to leave. Everytime i tried to pick up the bones, they would turn to sand. He would then be reborn from the sand. I was getting really pissed off and quite freaked out. My friend Superman appeared from somewhere and helped me out. He tried to pick up the bones and they turned to sand, so he pulled a broom out from somewhere and swept the guy out of the front door.

Superman came back to my room dragging a large cross. He talked to me as he proceded to crucify himself. When he was completely hung up on the cross, he started to become very disfigured. He then exploded into ashes. I was horrified. What had happened to my friend? I gathered the ashes up in a dustpan and took them to the kitchen sink. I dumped the ashes into the sink and ran water on them. A new superman grew up right out of my sink. He thanked me for bringing him to life, and hasily left.
Erowid experience report: 70 seeds of Datura Stramonium
What substances merit the
label 'hallucinogen' ?
LSD
Psilocybin
DMT
Mescaline

PCP
Ketamine
Salvia
Opiates?

MDMA
Volatile Solvents /Gasses?
Grouping: receptor affinity
r

'Psychedelics': Effects
greatly depend on Dose, Set, Setting!
mood: euphoria, anxiety, fear
perception: visual distortions (color, distance, depth), distorted sense of time
synesthesia: cross-sensory perception (e.g., smelling colors
consciousness: sense of universality, 'peak' religious experiences, depersonalization ('ego death')
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