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Chapter 1 The Science of Biology
Transcript of Chapter 1 The Science of Biology
1.1 What is Science
Objective: Explain what the goal of science is.
Objective: Explain what a hypothesis is.
1.2 How Scientists Work
Describe how scientists test their hypothesis.
How does a scientific theory develop?
1.3 Studying Life
Describe some characteristics of living things.
Explain how life can be studied at different levels.
1.4 Tools and Procedures
Describe the measurement system most scientists use.
Explain how light microscopes and electron microscopes are similar and different.
Describe two common laboratory techniques.
Explain why it is important to work safely in biology.
What is the goal of science?
Investigate and understand the natural world
Explain events in the natural world
Use explanations to make useful predictions
Thinking like a scientist
How did the girl in the video come up with her science project?
What impact did observations have on her science project?
List three inferences you saw performed in her science project.
What was the hypothesis in her science project?
What does science study?
What does it mean to describe a scientist as skeptical? Why is skepticism considered a valuable quality as a scientist?
What is the main difference between qualitative and quantitative observations?
What is a scientific hypothesis? In what two ways can a hypothesis be tested?
Is a scientific hypothesis accepted if there is now way to demonstrate that the hypothesis is wrong? Explain your answer.
Suppose a community proposes a law to require the wearing of seat belts in all moving vehicles. How could scientific research have an impact on the decision?
1.1 Section Assessment
What is a hypothesis?
A proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations.
Must be proposed in such a way that enables them to be tested.
Science and Human Values
HOW DO SCIENCE AND VALUES AFFECT EACH OTHER?
Why do you think reasonable individuals once accepted the ideas behind this recipe?
How to Design an Experiment
Ask a question
Form a Hypothesis
Set up a Controlled Experiment
Record and Analyze Results
Draw a conclusion
1.2 Section Assessment
Why is Redi's experiment on spontaneous generation considered a controlled experiment?
How does a scientific theory compare with a scientific hypothesis?
How do scientists today usually communicate their results and conclusions?
How did the design of Pasteur's flask help him successfully refute the hypothesis of spontaneous generation?
Evaluate the impact of Pasteur's research on both scientific thought and society. What was the effect of Pasteur's investigations on scientists' ideas and people's lives?
A theory applies to a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.
Characteristics of living things
All living things are made up of cells
All living things reproduce
All living things are based on a universal genetic code
All living things grow and develop
All living things obtain and use materials and energy
All living things respond to their environment
All living things maintain a stable internal environment
All living things (as a group) change over time
1.3 Section Assessment
Describe five characteristics of living things.
What topics might biologists study at the community level of organization?
Compare sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.
What biological process includes chemical reactions that break down materials?
What is homeostasis? Give an example of how it is maintained.
Suppose you feel hungry, so you reach for a peach you see in a fruit bowl. Explain how both external and internal stimuli are involved in your action.
1.4 Section Assessment
Why do scientists us a common system of measurement?
What is the difference in the way light microscopes and electron microscopes produce images?
What types of objects can be studied with an electron microscope?
Describe the technique and purpose of cell fractionation.
It has been said that many great discoveries lie in wait for the tools needed to make them. What does this statement mean to you? If possible, include an example in your answer.
Parts of a good hypothesis
Account for Relevant Information
- a logical explanation based on prior knowledge or experience.
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
- Descriptions that involve characteristics that cannot be counted or measured.
- Descriptions that are expressed as numbers, obtained by counting or measuring.