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Ann Roe Theory of Career Choice and Development
Transcript of Ann Roe Theory of Career Choice and Development
In 1990 Roe and Lunnburg describe it as view of individual differences and their relationship to vocational choice and behaviour.
Roe liked Maslow’s hypothesis about hierarchy of human needs.
There is no single situation that is potentially so capable of giving some satisfaction of all levels of basic needs as the occupation.
Roe saw the interaction of heredity and environment as important in causing a child to develop a person or non-person orientation and to leave an individual to selection an occupation that requires either high or low-level of interaction with others.
Ann Roe Theory of Career Choice and Development
This theory has been summarized by others like Ospow and Walsh;
1. Limits of potential development are set by genetic inheritance including intellectual abilities, temperament, interest and abilities.
2. General cultural background and socio-economic status of the family affect a unique individual experience.
3. Individual experience this governed by involuntary attention which determine the pattern of developments of interests, attitudes, and other personality variables that have not been genetically controlled:
a. Early satisfactions and frustrations resulting from the family situation, particularly relations with parents, that is over protectiveness, avoidance or acceptance of the child.
b. Degrees of needs satisfaction determine the personality of which is the hierarchy of Maslow (1948), such needs will become the strongest motivators
4. The eventual pattern of psychic energies that is attention directed is the major determinant of interests.
5. The intensity with which an individual feels, needs the individual feels the need and the satisfaction of the needs determine the degree of motivation to accomplish.
She was dissatisfied with available classification of occupations and she developed a list of eight occupational groups each group was divided into six levels of responsibility, capability and skill needed to perform on each level.
She proposed that interest and personality variables are determined by individual experience through which involuntary attention becomes channel in particular directions.
The elements in any situation to which one gives automatic or effortless attention are keys to the dynamics of behaviour.
Our attention is focus on our needs which are formed by the patterning of our early satisfactions and frustrations.
Some needs could become our strongest motivation but the nature of the motivation may be unconscious.
Following Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Roe proposed seven needs:
1. Physiological needs
2. Safety needs
3. Need for belongingness and love
4. Need for importance, respect, self-esteem and independence
5. Need for Need for information
6. Need for beauty
7. Need for self-actualization
Possible variations of need patterns include the following;
1. Needs satisfied routinely do not become unconscious motivators.
2. Needs which are minimally satisfied will, of lower order, prevent the appearance of higher needs will become dominant motivators.
3. Needs which are satisfied, but only after some delay, will become unconscious and motivator depending on the degree of satisfaction felt.
Another thing Roe proposed that the emotional climate in the home that is the relationship between parent and child can be a determining factor in the career choice and development.
They can be one the tree types:
Emotional concentration on the child
Over protective (Warm: Indulgent) and over demanding (cold: push to achieve high standards )
Avoidance of the child
Rejection(cold: hostile, critical) or neglect(minimum of care, lack of affection)
Acceptance of the child
Express casually (indulgent, few rules mildly affectionate)or lovingly(warm, helpful, loving attention)
Roe gave basic orientation that is toward or away from other person which are related to early childhood experiences which in turn related to occupational choice.
She theorized that warm and accepting parents, makes the person to want an occupation which is oriented toward people and will fill the need for belongingness and affection.
A person who had cold and rejecting parents will prefer to work alone.
She admitted though that there are other influences on occupational choice, including genetic influences and environmental experiences.
Roe proposes occupational groups with examples:
1. Service (maids, firemen, barbers, police, nurses, therapist)
2. Business (peddlers, buyers, salesmen, public relations)
3. Organizations (typists, clerks, owners, accountants, bankers)
4. Technology (laborers, mechanics, aviators, engineers)
5. Outdoor (farmers, miners, forest rangers, landscapers)
6. Science (technicians, pharmacists, scientists, college faculty)
It should be noted that Roe proposes a theory which stressed an in observable personality needs as primary determinant of occupational choice.
Her theory emphasizes the warmth or coldness of the childhood environment and parenting style.
Using Roe’s Theory several instruments have been developed:
1. Roe’s Own Theory: Parent-Child Relations Questioner (PCR1,1957)
2. Career Occupational Preference System (COPS, KNAPP and KNAPP,1984)
3. Computerized Vocational Information System (CVIS, Harris,1968)
4. Ramak and Courses (Meir & Barak, 1973)
5. Individual Career Exploration (ICE, Miller Tiedeman, 1976)
Roe’s Theory has not been validated but her work has contributed to an understanding of the importance of the role of occupation and lives of individuals.
Roe’s greatest achievement according to Walsh and Osipo, 1983 may lie in the use of her two way job classification and the concept of people versus ideas meaning that people either have an orientation toward people or an orientation away from people.
This two ideas have changed the ways counsellors work with clients.
Roe’s theory has an intuitive appeal but it is difficult to test since it would require a long term study of how children have different parental types turn out in adulthood, assuming they could be accurately assessed based on Roe’s typology.
Another problem is if a child two parents could have two different parenting styles and not all children have two parents in the home too.
The parental behaviours are inconsistent, there are many influences or occupational choice or parenting behaviour and personality. Research has not demonstrated a direct link between parent-child relationship and occupational choice.
She has adequately addressed the importance of socio-demographic variables in career choice.
John Holland’s Personality Theory
John Holland’s Theory can be said and trace back to his military experience during World War II.
In his work he hypothesize the people could be classified into relatively small number types.
He also counselled students at Case Western Reserved University and Physically disabled, and psychiatric patients at Veterans administration hospital.
This experience reinforce his belief about classification.
Holland’s Theory (1985), contents that every individual resembles one of six basic personality types and as result manifest some of the behaviours and traits associated with the type.
He also defined six environments, and declared that environments are characterized by the people who occupied them and he stated that an environmental type can be assessed by surveying the occupants of the environment.
His Theory of basic assumptions:
1. In our culture, most persons can be categorized as one of six types realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising or conventional .
2. There are six kinds of environments realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising or conventional .
3. People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles.
4. Behaviour is determined by an interaction between personality and environment.
In developing his types Holland look at results of a study conducted by Guelford , Christensen, Bond and Sutton, 1954 in which the use factor analysis with data gathered using the Strong Vocational Interest Blank.
In this study Guilford et. al, found seven interest factors:
Holland dropped the outdoor classification and renamed the six as:
John Holland’s Theory (RIASEC) maintains that in choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others who are like them.
They search environments that will let them use their skills and abilities and express their attitudes and values while taking on enjoyable problems and roles.
Behaviour is determined by an interaction between personality and environment.
His theory is centered on the notion that most people fit in to one of six personality types:
Realistic people prefer for activities that entail the explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of objects, tools, machines, and animals.
This type of personality likes to work mainly with hand : making, fixing, assembling or building things, using and operating equipment, tools or machines, often likes to work outdoors.
Realistic people have an aversion to educational or therapeutic activities.
Investigative people have a preference for activities that entail the observational symbolic, systematic, and creative investigation of physical, biological, and cultural phenomena in order to understand and control such phenomena.
This personality likes to discover and research ideas, observe, investigate and experiment, ask questions and solve problems. Investigative people have an aversion to persuasive, social, and repetitive activities.
Artistic people have a preference for ambiguous free, un-systematized activities that entails the manipulation of physical, verbal, or human materials to create art forms or products.
This type like to use words, arts, music or drama to communicate, perform, or express themselves, create and design things.
Artistic people have an aversion to explicit, systematic and ordered activities.
Social people have a preference for activities that entail the manipulation of others to inform, train, develop, cure, or enlighten.
This type likes to work with people, to teach, train and perform, help, treat, heal and cure, serve and greet, concern for the well-being and welfare of others.
Social people have an aversion to explicit, ordered, systematic activities involving materials, tools, or mechanics.
Enterprising people have an preference for activities that entail the manipulation of others to attain organizational goals or economic gain .
This type likes meeting people, leading, talking to and influencing others, encouraging others, working in business.
Enterprising people have an aversion to observational, symbolic , and systematic activities.
Conventional people have an preference for activities that entail the explicit, ordered, systematic , manipulation of data such as keeping records, filing materials, reproducing materials, organizing written and numerical data according to a prescribed plan, operating business machines and data processing machines to attain organizational or economic goals.
This type likes working indoors and a task that involves organizing and being accurate, following procedures, working with data or numbers, planning work and events. Conventional people have an aversion to ambiguous, free, exploratory, or un-systematized activities.
He changes later on with his beliefs that individuals could be characterized as belonging to a single one of the six types to a belief that one of the six types will predominate and subtypes influence the person personality.
All the six types are represented in a person total profile. He developed a system of defining personalities based on the three prevalent type of the individual.
A three letter code was used to describe personality types RAI meaning
Through a research on Holland’s Theory calculations were calculated that showed the psychological similarity across types in an effort to present a visual representation of the theory a hexagonal model was developed showing the relationships between the types.
Holland introduced five key concepts in addition to his four basic assumptions:
Consequence and Calculus.