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S2 The Geosphere 01: Structure of the Earth
Transcript of S2 The Geosphere 01: Structure of the Earth
About the Geosphere and Earth's other Spheres Part One
The Geosphere is very important, as it defines much of the environment we live in, controls the distribution of minerals, rocks and soils and generates natural hazards that shape the land and impact humans. The distribution of mountains, position of continents, shape of the sea floor and location of major rivers and flood plains are all largely products of processes that occur in the Geosphere. The distribution of mineral resources, such as oil, coal, metal ores and even sand and gravel are critical to the economic success of most nations.
About the Geosphere and Earth's Other Spheres Part Two
Cryosphere: All the ice on Earth is part of the cryosphere. Glaciers and icebergs are examples of ice in the cryosphere.
Hydrosphere: All the water in oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, and underground makes up the hydrosphere. All water moves through every other sphere of Earth in a process known as the water cycle.
Biosphere: Earth is the only known planet where life exists. Every living thing on Earth, including all plants, animals, and bacteria, are part of the biosphere.
Atmosphere: The thin layer of gases surrounding Earth form the atmosphere. The atmosphere is what makes life on Earth possible. Weather occurs in the atmosphere.
Geosphere: The land surfaces and interior of Earth make up the geosphere. This includes rocks, minerals, continents, lava flows, and even the core of the Earth.
Those pictures that you just saw in multimedia were ALL pictures of Earth's many layers! Looks like we got:
Lithosphere (Lithospheric mantle): solid rigid; less than 1,300 degrees Celsius; 5 to 100 kilometers thick; peridotite (silicates rich in magnesium oxide)
Asthenosphere (Asthenospheric mantle): solid plastic; greater than 1,300 degrees Celsius; about 650 kilometers thick; peridotite (silicates rich in magnesium oxide)
Lower mantle: solid plastic; around 2,500 degrees Celsius; about 2,250 kilometers thick; peridotite (silicates rich in magnesium oxide)
Gutenberg Discontinuity: boundary between the mantle and the outer core
Outer core: liquid; around 4,500 degrees Celsius; around 2,200 kilometers thick; iron
Inner core: solid; around 5,000 degree Celsius; around 1,250 kilometers thick; iron
*Reasons for studying the interior and exterior structure of Earth
- Studying the interior and exterior structure of Earth will allow you to know more about the planet you live in, Earth! This will help improve your knowledge, and your life!
- Studying the interior and exterior structure of Earth will allow you to predict activities that happen on the Earth, such as volcanic eruptions.
- Studying the interior and exterior structure of Earth will allow you to learn about Earth's awesome spheres! This will help you learn about interactions between Earth's spheres, and how they affect Earth, and us, as well!
*Speaking of Earth's spheres, the geosphere, one of Earth's spheres, happens to affect ALL of Earth's spheres! How? Well,
- Scientists believe that actions of the geosphere, such as volcanic outgassing, rock weathering, and iron oxidation, have all had a long-term affect on Earth's atmosphere.
<-- How the geosphere affects the atmosphere.
- All plants need the geosphere to grow. Humans and animals need the geosphere to survive. Really, I don't think that without the geosphere, anything would have gotten to the way it has now! Don't you agree?
<-- How the geoshphere affects the biosphere.
- The ocean floor, believe it or not, is made by the geosphere itself! *Tectonic plate movement can sometimes cause underwater earthquakes. Underwater earthquakes are the general cause of tsunamis*!
<-- How the geosphere affects the hydrosphere.
- Glacial ice carves and shapes alpine terrain at high latitudes and altitudes.
<-- How the geosphere affects the cryosphere.
*Source Used: http://earth.rice.edu/mtpe/geo/geosphere/geosphere_why.html
Earth—the only known planet in the universe able to support life—consists of five main “spheres,” as follows:
Biosphere: All living things on Earth
Cryosphere: All ice and glacial structures on Earth
Geosphere: The actual physical parts of Earth itself
Atmosphere: All the air that envelops Earth
Hydrosphere: All of the freshwater and saltwater resources of Earth
Earths many layers, including the inner core and outer core. ---->
<---- Earths many layers, including the lithosphere, asthenospheric mantle, and lower mantle.
Earths many layers, including the gutenburg discontinuity ---->
Earth's interior consists of the crust, mantle, and core.
Crust: The outermost layer of Earth is rigid. Its thickness varies. Oceanic crust , or crust under the oceans, is generally thinner than the continental crust of landmasses.
Mantle: The mantle is the middle layer of Earth. Most of the mantle is rigid but plastic in nature. Plasticity is the ability of a substance under high temperature and pressure to flow, even when it is solid. The main zones of the mantle include the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The lithosphere consists of the rigid upper mantle and the crust directly above it. The asthenosphere consists of the fluid lower mantle.
Core: The earth's core has two regions, the inner core and outer core. The inner core of Earth is thought to be solid iron. The outer core is molten. As Earth spins on its axis, rotation of the liquid outer core generates Earth's magnetic field.
Looks like Earth, the only known planet in the universe able to support life, consists of five main spheres. These spheres are the geosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, and the atmosphere. Earth's layers include the the lithosphere, asthenosphere, lower mantle, outer core, inner core, and gutenberg discontinuity. Earth's interior consists of the crust, mantle, and core. Earth's exterior consists of the atmosphere, etc...
Well, what do you know? The product I just made accurately and precisely describes the structure of Earth! Why? Well, I accurately, and precisely, described Earth's many layers, composition, structure, layers, and yes, even spheres! Don't trust me? You can always go back and check!