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The Integumentary System
Transcript of The Integumentary System
The Integumentary System
Pacinian's corpuscles sense heavy touch and are located deep in the skin.
Meissner's corpuscles are located at the top of the dermis and sense light touch. They are most frequent in the fingertips, soles of the feet, and face.
Merkel's discs also sense light touch, and are located at the ends of nerves in the bottom of the epidermis.
The top layer of the skin.
0.05 mm at the thinnest to 1.5 mm at the thickest on the palms and soles of the feet.
There are also 4 specialty cells within the epidermis:
(produce keratin-waterproofing, flexibility, and protection)
(produce melanin-skin color)
(work with the Merkel discs in light touch)
There are 5 layers of the epidermis:
Stratum lucidum (only in thickest skin)
Stratum basale or germinativum
The function of the epidermis is to be a barrier to germs, UV light, and chemicals trying to enter the body.
Free nerve endings
Protection from dehydration
Protection from injury
Defense against invasion by bacteria/viruses
Regulation of body temperature
Converting Vitamin D
The hypodermis is NOT part of the skin, it is the layer of fat (adipose tissue) that the skin and most of its accessory organs rest on.
Some accessory organs, like the hair follicles, have their deepest roots in the hypodermis.
Also part of the integumentary system are the accessory organs. They are:
There are 3 types and 1 subtype of glands that produce different things.
glands, which produce oil.
Mammary glands, which produce milk in women
glands, which produce sweat. There are 2 types: eccrine and apocrine.
produces sweat when you're hot, and
produces cold sweat in stressful situations and pheromones after puberty.
There are 2 layers in the dermis.
is the top layer, under the epidermis.
is the bottom layer.
Both layers are made of loose, fibrous, connective tissue.
The dermis is the middle layer of the skin.
It contains 2 layers and nourishes the epidermis.
Many accessory organs are also located in the dermis.
The dermis functions as the "control" part of the skin, nourishing the avascular epidermis and encapsulating most of the accessory organs, with the exception of the nails and some tiny blood vessels.
What is the Integumentary System?
The skin , the tissue under the skin (subcutaneous tissue) and all of its accessory organs.
Free nerve endings sense pain, they are the bare ends of nerves located at the top of the dermis.
There are many diseases affecting the integumentary system, but some of the most common are:
Skin cancers are the growth of abnormal cells. There are 3 types:
Basal cell carcinoma is the least harmful, with a 99% cure rate with removal.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most harmful, with a 99% overall cure rate
Malignant melanoma is the most harmful, with a 15% cure rate.
The buildup of scaly skin, occurring when cells' life cycle rapidly increases.
Burns have 4 degrees from minor to harmful.
First degree: affects only epidermis (sunburn)
Second degree: affects epidermis and dermis
Third degree: affects skin and hypodermis, can cause numbness
Fourth degree: affects skin, hypodermis, and structures beyond the integumentary system
Ruffini's endings sense heat, there is 1 receptor per square inch of skin.
End-bulb of Krause
The end-bulb of Krause senses cold, and there are 6 receptors per square inch of skin.
Nails are the keratinized layers of epidermal cells that cover the fingertips. Their functions are:
grasping and manipulating objects
protecting from trauma of the fingertips
The hair follicle contains the hair shaft, and extends into the dermis. There are 3 parts of the hair follicle: hair bulb, hair papilla, and the follicle receptor. To grow, there are also 3 stages in that process. They are:
Catagen (transitional phase)
Telogen (resting phase)
Hair covers almost the entire body, and its main function is to sense touch. It's made up of hardened, keratinized cells. There are 2 parts-the
(above the skin's surface) and the
(below the skin's surface). The shaft also has 3 layers- the
from the inside to the surface.
Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues by Michael D. Johnson, pgs 91-95
Science Olympiad Anatomy binder (Abby)
Objectives: upon completion of this unit you will be able to
1. Identify the major structures of the integumentary system and their functions.
2. Identify all tissue types and layers that make up the skin.
3. Identify the different types of epithelial cells and locate them based on function.
4. Identify the structure and function of the accessory organs in the skin.
5. Understand the process of tissue repair.
6. Identify the types and severity of burns.
7. Understand the ABC rule as it pertains to skin cancer.
Tissues = groups of cells acting together
4 major types:
– involved in all body systems.
– also obvious.
- Protective coverings on surfaces, lining cavities, and in/around organs
Cells fit closely together
Tissue layer always has one free surface
The lower surface is bound by a basement membrane
Avascular (have no blood supply)
Regenerate easily if well nourished
Epithelial tissues are classified by cell shape & the number of cell layers
Shape of cells
Squamous – flattened
Cuboidal – cube-shaped
Columnar – column-like
Simple = single layer
Stratified = multiple layers
Pseudostratified = single with different sizes
Transitional = specialized for stretching
25 to 30 layers of
flat dead cells
filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids
– continuously shed
Barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals & bacteria
Lamellar granules in this layer make it water-repellent.
present only in the fingers tips, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet.
Three to five layers of clear, flat, dead cells
protects against heavy abrasion
transition between the deeper, metabolically active strata and the dead cells of the more superficial strata
3-5 layers of flat dying cells that show nuclear degeneration
Contain lamellar granules that release a lipid that repels water
Contain dark-staining keratin precursor molecules
provides strength and flexibility to the skin
8 to 10 cell layers are held together by desmosomes.
Thickest layer of 'living' epithelial cells
metabolically active, but nuclear membrane is deteriorating
Deepest, single, layer of epidermis cells
specialized cells found here – merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes & stem cells that divide repeatedly
Tightly bound to basement membrane & dermis