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The History of Organic Chemistry

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Sophia Millar

on 30 November 2012

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Transcript of The History of Organic Chemistry

The 19th Century During the early nineteenth century scientists discovered that organic compounds could in fact be created and studied.

Around 1816: Michel Chevreul began studying and producing compounds, without "vital force".
1828: Friedrich Wöhler produced the organic chemical urea (carbamide), from the inorganic compound ammonium cyanate NH4CNO. This is now known as the Wöhler synthesis.
1856: William Henry Perkin accidentally discovered organic dye, now known as Perkins Mauve. This created more interest in the study of organic chemistry.
1858: The concept of chemical structure was developed. Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz and Archibald Scott Couper, suggested that tetravalent carbon atoms could link to each other to form a carbon lattice, creating detailed patterns of atomic bonding.
1865: Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz published a paper on Benzene, creating a new understanding of Benzene. In the Beginning Prior to the nineteenth century, chemists generally believed that organic compounds found in living organisms were to complex to be synthesized and studied.

During this period scientists believed the concept of vitalism, in which it was believed that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things"{1}. They also believed all organic compounds possessed vital force, unlike inorganic.

They named these compounds "organic" and chose to direct their studies toward inorganic materials which were seemingly more easily studied. Organic Chem. Fun Facts Beta-carotene is a naturally occurring organic compound responsible for the bright orange color pigments in carrots.

Caffeine is a organic compound.

Phenylethylamine, is an organic compound is found in chocolate. The 19th & 20th Century
The history of organic chemistry continued with the discovery of petroleum and its separation into fractions according to boiling ranges, which lead to the petrochemical industry. People then began to make artificial rubbers, various organic adhesives, other petroleum additives, and plastics. In the late 19th century the pharmaceutical industry began when acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) was manufactured and sold in Germany. Into the 20th century scientists were able to synthesize and study highly complex molecules. This century was also when Biochemistry was introduced, which opened up a new chapter of organic chemistry entirely. The 21st Century Recrystallization:

Mn2O7: Chorline & Coke: Video Link Now organic chemistry is defined as the study of compounds containing carbon molecules. Currently there are near 10 million organic compounds that scientists have discovered.

Vitalism, believed in the 1700's, is now considered to be an obsolete term and rejected in the world of science. Sophia & Kaitlyn The History of Organic Chemistry {1} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitalism
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