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lucy SZCZ

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of MOOCs

Traditional educational model:
All aspects of learning process managed by educational institution
Distribution of educational materials (possibly mediated by software or web application)
Disciplinary action

MOOC educational model:
Some aspects of the learning process are outsourced to a MOOC platform
Distribution of educational materials
Credentialing (certificate of completion)
Disciplinary action
This disrupts the traditional educational model
Different from traditional distance education, not inherently pedagogically superior

: Participatory Open Online Course (offered October 2013)

: Massive University Course with Online Resources

: A Massive Online Educational BA Program

: Content-based, use traditional
pedagogical and evaluation tools

: Network-based, focus on
collaborative learning

: Task-based, collaborative learning
with practical outcomes
Online vs. In-Class Learning
In terms of student grades, there is no significant difference between courses taken online and courses taken in person
The History of MOOCs
- First
correspondence course
Current types of MOOCs:
Alternative versions of MOOCs:

Presence is acceptance
Parental consent required if under 18
No users under 13 permitted
Some limits on use of courses within tuition-based or for-credit programs
Grant platform a “fully transferable, worldwide, perpetual, royalty-free and non-exclusive” right to content posted on forums
Agree not to misrepresent your identity
Agree not to cheat or plagiarize
Terms of Service
Students in the online class enjoyed it less and found it more difficult. However, they spent less time on work outside of class, and achieved comparable grades to the students in the traditional classroom.
What Does this Mean for Universities?
Online learning is efficient because students can achieve the same grades while spending less time on coursework
In the long term increased online course offerings is cost effective because online courses free up classroom space. The university can increase enrolment without having to build new class space
It is concerning that students enjoyed the online course less. However, as online learning becomes more common student enjoyment scores may increase
MOOCs in the University Classroom
MOOCs are often criticized as being isolating. However, this argument does not stand up in today's educational environment where 1000 person classes are the norm in many programs

University courses in general have become isolating. MOOCs encourage participation through blog posts, and online discussion questions. MOOCs give everyone a chance to speak and allow introverted people to communicate comfortably.
Why should future information professionals care about MOOCs?
“MOOCs will be part of your future,
or something like MOOCs.”
Wendy Newman

“As librarians, we are in the best position to confront these challenges, because we work at the intersection of technology and pedagogy, and we are well equipped to understand technology’s broader implications and impact on teaching, learning, and scholarship.”
Kendrick & Gashurov (2013)
Flipped class model: a professor assigns MOOC lectures designed by themselves or someone else as homework which frees up class time for discussion and collaborative activities

An electrical engineering course at San Jose State University employed the flipped classroom model to great success. The pass rate jumped from 50% to 90%

MOOCs could be used to standardize introductory courses across a university, or even across multiple universities. Every first year Biology student could take the same BIO101 course. This would ensure they all have the same base of knowledge when moving on to more specialized courses in later years
o Negotiate contracts about ownership of course
content with MOOC providers
o Negotiate new licenses with publishers
o Fair use: education recently added with bill C-11
o Support faculty in developing syllabi with open
access or public domain materials
o Create research guides for students directing
them to open access or public domain materials
o Create opt-in paid service for access to
library materials? Or…
o Advocate for open scholarship?
MOOCs at the University of Toronto
What can information professionals contribute to MOOCs?
UofT has offered twelve MOOCs through Coursera and EdX in the following subject areas: statistics, programming, aboriginal studies, the social context of mental health, and bioinformatics methods

UofT's motivations for creating MOOCs are:
"Contribute to the education community and the broader public through sharing of institutional expertise and open curriculum content"
"Explore and evaluate a range of pedagogical approaches and open course platforms"
"Leverage use of open educational resources through integration into University of Toronto degree program course"
"Enhance the University of Toronto’s reputation as a leading institution for teaching, learning and research"
"Feature the University of Toronto’s contribution to global innovation"

1 - Copyright, Intellectual Property, and Open Access
2 - Creation and Production
o Be involved from the beginning
o Support faculty in obeying and understanding
copyright law
o Provide technological instructional support and
o Contribute to building of research skills tutorials
and assignments
o Advocate for accessibility
o Create library-run MOOCs
Global Network
The people using UofT's MOOCs are from all over the world. MOOCs can offer prestige and promotion on a global scale for both professors and the institution.
3 - In-Session Support
o Join discussion groups, create an “Ask a
Librarian” service, or set up an e-mail address
o Make students aware of the resources available
to them
o Public libraries can also be involved in in-session
support for students who do not have
access to an academic library
-Reference services
-Provide space and technology for MOOC use
-Incorporate into programming
-Inform patrons of issues surrounding
4 - Assessment
o Find out how and if MOOCs work
o Must respect the privacy of
students in analyzing data
Discussion Questions
5 - Preservation
o Course content: videos, quizzes,
assignments, etc.
o Student-generated content:
discussions, assignments, etc.
MOOCs as Disruptive Innovation
“It is my hope that librarians will at least be aware of these challenges and be ready to provide service, or else risk being left out of a huge new development in online higher-education”
Wright (2013)

“At the times that libraries were slow to help, slow to reconfigure their resources, and waited to see what might develop, they lost chances to renew their importance to their home institution.”
Michalko (qtd in Kendrick & Gashurov, 2013)
What can information professionals
get out of MOOCs?
MOOCs and Copyright
1 - Demonstrate Value

o Increasingly important for
librarians to prove the necessity of their expertise
o Don’t underestimate what we
can currently do
Since most MOOC students are not traditional students enrolled in college or university, they do not have the same access to databases that current students at a University might have
The act of uploading articles, textbooks or other resources might leave professors or other MOOC administrators dealing with copyright infringement problems in court
MOOCs will suffer and continue to lack the rich vast resources needed for the full understanding of a particular topic if intructors are limited by the resources they can include in their syllabi
2 - Be Part of a Larger Movement
o Engage in the debate
o Open access scholarship
o Educational reforms
o Technology and learning
3 - Professional
o MOOCs are also resources for information professionals
o Supplement education or update skills and knowledge
o Connect with other professionals

Copyright Solutions
Some examples:

- edX:
Library Advocacy
– Wendy Newman, University of Toronto
- Coursera:
History and Future of (Mostly) Higher Education

Cathy N. Davidson, Duke University
- Coursera:
Metadata: Organizing and Discovering Information

Jeffrey Pomerantz, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The Hyperlinked Library
– Michael Stephens & Kyle Jones, San Jose
State University
New Librarianship Master Class

David Lankes, Syracuse University
Business, computer programming, education, information studies

Link students directly to open access article, if not openly accessible, instructor must find new materials
Make agreements with publishers to release excerpts or chapters, or offer discounted e-books to students
When faculty publish work, they should agree to have materials openly accessible to MOOC students
Want to provide students with rich content, but...
It is not feasible to pay for licensing fees for the thousands of students enrolled in MOOCs
Attrition Rates
Figures for drop out rates for online courses can be as high as 90%
This rate would be catastrophic in the setting of a traditional classroom
Is it fair to compare the number of students who enrolled in a course and the number that remains at the end?
1920s and 30s
"On-air courses"
Are Students Not Committed to Online Learning?
- Apple
iTunes U
Attrition rates are based on those who take tests and complete the final exam; enough credit isn’t given to those just want to watch lectures and not take quizzes, or those who just seek the social experience that is also intellectually stimulating

Different students will participate in different ways

Test and quiz completion rates are not always directly reflective of those who are learning

Some people register under several courses to find out where their interests lie and their enrolment should not contribute to drop out rates

- "Connectivism and Connective Knowledge" inspires the term "MOOC"
- "Introduction to
Artificial Intelligence"
and launch of
- Launch of
What Did Students Say?
Do you think MOOCs are a positive or negative development in the educational landscape? In other words, do you think MOOCs enhance or detract from learning experiences, and how?
How do you see yourself using MOOCs in the future, in either your personal or professional life?

Presentation Outline
What is a MOOC?
History of MOOCs
Major Trends and Themes
MOOCs and Higher Education
Issues: Copyright and Attrition
MOOCs and Information
Discussion Questions
How does a MOOC look?
Full transcript