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Sports Medicine: The Basics

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by

Ben Carney

on 10 May 2012

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Transcript of Sports Medicine: The Basics

Sports Medicine: The Basics Sports Injuries are increasing What are Sports Injuries? Sports Injuries refer to the kind of injuries that most commonly occur during sports or exercise Caused by:
poor training practices
improper equipment
lack of conditioning
insufficient warmup and stretching Muscle sprains and strains Common Types of Sports Injuries Tears of the ligament that hold joints together Tear of tendons that support joints and allow them to move Dislocated joints Fractured bones, including vertebrae Knee injuries are the most common types of sports injuries Knee Injuries More than 5.5 million people visit orthopedic surgeons for knee problems Common Knee Problems:
runner's knee (pain or tenderness close to or under knee cap)
iliotibial band syndrome (pain on the outer side of knee)
tendonitis (degeneration within a tendon- usually where it joins bone) 2 types of cartilage in the knee:
meniscus (disc that absorbs shock b/w femur and tibia
articular (surface coating) 4 Major Ligaments that support the Knee
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
medial collateral ligament (MCL)
lateral collateral ligament (LCL) The Knee Injuries are caused from:
a blow to or twisting of the knee
improper landing after a jump
running too hard, much, or with improper warmup Knee Injuries When the surface layer or cartilage breaks down and wears away in osteoarthritis Breakdown of cartilage causes bones to rub together- result in pain, swelling, loss of motion Muscle Sprains and Strains Strains Sprains stretch or tear of a ligament (band of connective tissue that joins one bone to another)
caused by fall or blow to the body which dislocates a joint
can range from 1st degree (minimum stretch) to 3rd degree (complete tear)
most vulnerable areas:
ankles
knee
wrists twist, pull, or tear of a muscle
an acute, non contact injury that results from overstretching or over contraction
symptoms include:
pain
muscle spasm
loss of strength Pain along the tibia or shin bone, the large bone in the front of the lower leg Shin Splints Pain occurs at the front outside part of the lower leg, including the foot and ankle (anterior shin splints) or inner edge of the bone where it meets the calf muscles (medial shin splints) Primarily seen in runners Risk factors:
overuse or incorrect use of the leg
improper stretching, warmup, or exercise technique
overtraining; running or jumping on hard surfaces
running in shoes that don't have enough support Associated with flat feet A stretch, tear, or irritation to the tendon connecting the calf muscle to the back of the heel Achilles Tendon Injuries Sudden and agonizing injuries with powerful pain Most common in "weekend warriors" because they do not properly prepare for the event Caused primarily by tendonitis, degenerative condition caused by aging or overuse Fractures Bone Fractures Acute Fractures Stress Fractures A break in the bone that can occur from either a quick, one-time injury to the bone (acute fracture) or from repeated stress to the bone over time (stress fracture) simple (a clean break with little damage to the surrounding tissue)
compound (a break in which the bone pierces the skin with little damage to the surrounding tissue)
most are emergencies
when bone breaks the skin there is at a high risk of infection occur largely in the feet and legs and are common in sports that require repetitive impact from jumping/running
running creates forces two to three times a person's body weight on the lower limbs
most common symptom of a stress fracture is pain at the site that worsens with weight-bearing activity
tenderness and swelling occur When two bones that form a joint become separated the joint is described as dislocated Dislocations Majority of dislocations are caused by involvement in high-impact sports such as football These require immediate medical attention Joints that are most likely dislocated are the hand joints and shoulder Dislocations of the knees, hips, and elbows are uncommon Occurs when sudden physical assault on the head causes damage to the brain Traumatic Brain Injuries Closed injury occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, but the object does not break through the skull Penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue Several types of traumatic injuries can affect the brain and head Skull fracture occurs when the bone of the skull cracks or breaks Depressed skull fracture occurs when pieces of the broken skull press into the tissue of the brain which causes bruising of the brain tissue (contusion) Cccurs when a traumatic event results in damage to cells in the spinal cord or severs the nerve tracts that relay signals up and down the spinal cord Spinal Cord Injury Most common types of spinal cord injuries:
contusion (bruising of brain)
compression (caused by pressure on the spinal cord) Other types of spinal cord injuries are:
lacerations- severing or tearing of nerve fibers
central cord syndrome- specific damage to the cervical region of the spinal cord Acute and Chronic Injuries Acute Injuries Chronic Injuries Sudden injuries that include symptoms such as:
sudden, severe pain
swelling
inability to place weight on lower limb
extreme tenderness in upper limb
inability to move a joint through full range of motion
visible dislocation/break of a bone result from overusing one area of body while playing a sport or exercising over a long period
Symptoms include:
pain when performing activities
dull ache when at rest
swelling Never try to work through the pain if you believe that you have sustained an injury What should I do if I suffer an injury? Continuing the activity only causes further harm You should call a health professional if:
the injury causes severe pain, swelling, or numbness
you can't tolerate weight on the area
the pain of dull ache of an old injury is accompanied by increased swelling or joint instability
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