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Self Medication

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ang wan

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Self Medication

ACE STUDY
Conducted between 1995-1997 by Kaiser Permanente in California

Involved over 17,000 participants

Looked at the correlation between Adverse Childhood Experiences in relation to subsequent physical and mental health issues, and development addictions

SMH: the Self Medication Hypothesis
Concept originally founded in 1974 by L. Wurmser, and later evolved into SMH in 1985 by co-founders Edward Khantzian, Mack and Schatzberg, and David F. Duncan

Potential Positives
Absolves the addicted individual of excessive blame

Avoids the stigma of "disease"

Gives control or "agency" back to the addicted individual
Self Medication
Wikipedia defines self medication as: "a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self administer treatment for often un-managed, undiagnosed physical or psychological ailments."
Defining Addiction: Disease, Choice, or Self-Medication?

Khantzian takes a psychodynamic approach to self-medication

Duncan's model focuses on behavioral factors such as positive and negative reinforcement, and avoidance of withdrawal symptoms
Potential Drawbacks
?
Divisions OF SMH
Results
The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study found multiple, dose-dependent relationships between severe childhood stress and all types of addictions, including overeating.
THOUGHTS?

CRITIQUES?

OPINIONS?
Skeptics
In 1985, psychologist W. L. Cox and others proposed that there was no scientific evidence to support SMH
Ego Psychology
Sigmund Freud's theories regarding the Ego, Super Ego, and the Id

Substance or behaviors are used as
"ego solvents", or to compensate
for a deficient ego
Two Necessary Components:
The addictive search

The adventitious entrance of chemicals
I get by with a little help from my friends....
promotes the wrong intervention strategy for individuals with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders,
encourages clinicians to target only the “underlying” psychiatric illness and ignore addiction assuming that once the depression or mania or anxiety or whatever is treated, the substance use problems will resolve,
encourages patients to interpret all psychological suffering, e.g., depression, anxiety, irritability, poor concentration, as originating from the underlying psychiatric disorder rather than from dependence on or withdrawal from addictive substances, and
allows addicted patients to deny the negative impact of substance use, rather than encouraging them into behavioral change.
Proposed Models of Treatment
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Motivational Interviewing
Harm Reduction
According to Cox,
there are 3 pre-existing character traits:
Independence
Non-Conformity
Impulsivity
Full transcript