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Road to Revolution
Transcript of Road to Revolution
French & Indian War
Stamp Act - 1765
Boston Tea Party
British vs. French
Left a huge amount of debt
Belief that wealth was power and that a country’s power could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury.
To get gold, must export more than import
Colonies provide export markets
Colonies provide source for raw material
Colonies can’t trade with others
Colonies can’t produce their own finished goods
Encourage colonies to produce what mother country must import
The Good: Colonists had the protection of the world’s strongest navy and an army (redcoats) without any costs!
The Bad: American colonists felt used and kept as children in an economic adolescence.
Albany Plan of Union
Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Sugar Act - 1764
Placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies.
Colonial leader James Otis claimed that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies, since the colonies were not represented. Otis exclaimed, “Taxation without representation is tyranny!”
Required colonists to house British soldiers and provide them with food and supplies
Required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid. All diplomas, contracts, wills, and published materials had to be written on special stamped paper.
Stamp Act Congress
In October 1765, nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress. This was the 1st time the colonies met to consider acting together to protest.
Colonial merchants organized a boycott of British goods.
Sons of Liberty was a secret society of colonists that led protests of the Stamp Act
They burned stamped paper whenever they could find it.
Attacked custom officials whom they covered with hot tar and feathers.
Tar & Feathering of Agents was Common!
When Thomas Hutchinson, a member of the council in Massachusetts, said that the Parliament had a “perfectly legal” right to tax the colonies, a mob broke into his house one night, looted it, and tore up much of the furniture.
When colonists protested that they were being taxed while “not represented” in the House of Commons, British lawyers replied that every British subject was “virtually represented.”
“Protection and obedience are reciprocal. Great Britain protects America; America is bound to yield obedience. If not, tell me when the Americans were emancipated? When they want protection of this kingdom, they are always ready to ask for it. That protection has always been afforded them in the most full and ample manner. The nation has run itself into an immense debt to give them their protection; and now they are called upon to contribute a small share towards the public expence, and expence arising from themselves, they renounce your authority, insult your officers, and break out, I might almost say, into open rebellion.”
- Prime Minister Grenville
Stamp Act Repealed in 1766
Parliament had supreme authority to govern the colonies.
1st of the Acts suspended New York’s assembly until New Yorkers agreed to provide housing for the troops. (Suspending Act)
The other acts placed duties, or import taxes, on various goods brought into the colonies, such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. (Revenue Act)
British Send Troops to Boston
Parliament proposed the repeal of the Townshend Acts on the day of the Boston Massacre
Parliament kept the tea tax to show that it still had the right to tax the colonists.
The Tea Act gave the British control over the American tea trade
Tea would actually cost less now that there was no middle man, but the colonists protest on principle – No Taxation Without Representation
Tea Act of 1773
Three ships from London, the Dartmouth, the Eleanor and the Beaver, sailed into Boston Harbor from November 28th to December 8, 1773. Loaded with tea from the East India Company, they were all anchored at Griffin’s Wharf but were prevented from unloading their cargo.
Lexington & Concord
Boston Port Act - Closed the ports at Boston until the colonists paid for the tea
Banned committees of correspondence
Quartering Act - Allowed Britain to house troops wherever necessary
Administration of Justice Act
Massachusetts Government Act/Regulatory Act
Sam Adams proposed that Boston suspend all trade with Great Britain and British West Indies
The other colonies supported Massachusetts in protest. Shops closed and bells tolled.
Demonstrators marched through the streets.
Donations began to pour into Boston: rice, wheat, sugar, flour, and even hundreds of sheep, herded form Connecticut and New York to Massachusetts.
1st Continental Congress
In September 1774, delegates from all of the colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia. Delegates voted to ban all trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed
Did not advocate independence; it sought rather to right the wrongs that had been inflicted on the colonies and hoped that a unified voice would gain them a hearing in London.
First battles of the American Revolution
British soldiers marched toward Concord to take American’s supply of guns and gunpowder
British were surprised by group of minutemen in Lexington (a town on the way to Concord)
British casualties were nearly three times those of the Americans
Who Fired the 1st Shot?
Olive Branch Petition
Petition sent to the King by the Second Continental Congress begging him to stop the war and make peace with the colonists.
In early 1776, most Americans still wanted to avoid any conflict with, or breaking away from, Britain
Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet titled Common Sense to help convince many Americans that a break was necessary, that America was being challenged by British tyranny.
The pamphlet made a strong case for American independence
I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation, to show, a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge, not a single advantage is derived.
Justify the legality of independence.
List the grievances against King George.
Gain support (Americans and the World)
By signing this Declaration of Independence, these individuals were committing treason and that was punishable by death.
American Colonies Prior to the Revolution
Currency Act, 1764
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Massachusetts Circular Letter
House of Burgesses
John Hancock & The Liberty
Glorious Ninety Two
Galloway Plan of Union
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Led by Patrick Henry
Virginia leaders adopted resolutions including non-importation
Claimed Virginia could only be taxed by Virginians
8 other colonies passed similar resolutions