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Teaching grammar

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by

Paula Borges

on 18 October 2014

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Transcript of Teaching grammar

Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Instituto de Letras e Linguística
Estágio Inglês-1

Teacher: Cristiane C. de Paula Brito
Students: Lucas, Jaysson, Paula
Teaching Grammar
Penny Ur
Unit One: What is grammar?
Grammatical structures
Unit two: The place of grammar teaching
"Grammar is sometimes defined as the way words are put together to make correct sentences."
Grammatical

x

ungrammatical
(I am a teacher x I a teacher)
Grammaticaly Aceptable x Grammaticaly Unceptable
a tall woman;
went
a woman tall;
goed
Past tense;
noun plurals;
comparison of adjectives


"Occasionally foreign structures that look strange may be surprisingly easy to master, and vice versa."
Grammatical meaning
"It is very often the meanings of the structures which create the difficulties for foreign learners"
"The meaning of a grammatical structures may be quite difficult to teach."
"The place of grammar in the teaching of foreign language is controversial."
Knowledge of a language is knowing its grammar.
Teaching Grammar
Scrivener
What is grammar?
Key questions concerning teaching grammar:
Defining grammar
What is grammar?

How people learn grammar?

How can I analyse form, meaning and use for teaching purposes?

What are possible component parts of a grammar lesson?

How can I provide relevant input for learners?

How can I help learners notice, understand and memorise language?

How can I help learners practice using language?
Rules about sentence formation, tenses, verb patterns, etc in a reference book;

The moment-by-moment structuring of what we say as it is being spoken;

Exercises (eg fill in the gap, multiple choice) about tenses, etc;

Our internal "database" as to what are possible or impossible sentences
"Record and/or reciting grammar rules may not necessarily be "learning grammar"
"The information in your head is a living resource that allows you to communicate and be understood"
"learners have to do a number of things to be able to start making any new grammar item part of their own personal stock of language."
Present
Practice
Input
Learning
Use
Restricted exposure

Authentic Exposure

Clarification
(Explanatory;
Guided;
Self-directed)
Understanding

Memory

Reflection

Noticing

Preparing
(to speak/ to write)
Restricted output

Authentic output
If we want to plan a well-focused grammar lesson, we need to decide:

Which of these areas we want to spend time on;

How long we want to give to each one;

What the best sequence is to have them in.
"Many present-practice lessons are structured as shown below:"
Clarification:
explanation
Restricted
output
Restricted
output
Authentic
output
"The lesson structure might then look like this:"
Restricted
exposure
Clarification:
guided
discovery
Restricted
output
Restricted
output
Authentic
output
"Situational presentation: the language is introduced via a context that the teacher has created (using board drawings, for example)."
Establish the context
Establish the meaning of the target item
Introduce and practice the target language
Generate more sentences from the context
Recording in notebooks
Moving on to practice stages
Balancing presentation and practice
"What should be the balance of practice to presentation?"
"... students in many classes do not need long explanations or detailed information. What they tend to need more are challenging opportunities to try using the language items themselves."
Moving the language from the head to the mouth.
Clarification
"You have reached a point in your lesson where you want the learners really to focus on a piece of grammar, to see it, think about it and understand it, to become much clearer on its form, meaning and use. "
Explanatory:
Teacher tells the learner
Guided discovery:
Teacher helps the learner
to tell himself
Self-directed discovery:
The learner tells himself
Thank You!
Unit 3 Grammatical terms: units of language
Linguistics usualy define the largest unit of language as “discorse” or “text”, but for most practical teaching purposes, , the sentence is probaly the most convenient base unit. Smaller units are the clause, the phrase, the word, the morpheme
Parts of the sentence
We may also analyse the sentence according to the relationship between its component phrases. The most common parts of the sentences are subject, verb and object, wich may be combined into a basic pattern like I saw the man, I being the subject, saw the verb and man the object.
Parts of the speech
Different parts of the sentence may be realized by various kinds of words ( or phrases): these are called parts of speech and they are:

Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs


Pronouns
Auxiliary verbs
Modal verbs
Determiners
Prepositions
Unit 4- Presenting and explaining grammar
It is surprisingly difficult to present and explain a foreign language grammatical structure to a class of learners. The problem is first to understand yourself what is involved in knowing the structure, and in particular whats likely to cause difficulties to the learners and second how to present examples and formulates explanations that will clearly convey the necessary information.

Classroom or peer teaching
Stage 1: Presentation

Stage 2: Optional

Stage 3: FeedBack

Clarification
Is when you point in your lesson where you want the learners really to focus on a piece of grammar.

Teacher explanation: Teacher tells the learner;

Guided discovery: Teacher helps the learner to tell himself;

Self-directed discovery: The learner tells himself.

Mistake x Error
Why drills?
Variations on drills:
Variations on a drill
Variations on the variations

Designing a drill
Substitution drills
Transformation drills
True sentences
Written exercises
Different ways
Game-like
Full transcript