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Failure of the League of Nations
Transcript of Failure of the League of Nations
The aim of the League of Nations was disarmament, to stop wars, improve lives and employment for citizens and enforce and maintain the Treaty of Versailles. The League planned to make peace and settle any disputes without violence or force. The League had some good ideas and they were successful, but overall, it was a failure. There were many reasons why it had failed to keep peace: Not all countries joined the League, therefore it was weak, there were lack of troops, economic sanctions didn't work, there was betrayal, there was self-interest of leading members and decisions were slow. Thus leading us to the rearming of Germany which led to World War 2, The league of nations had no power to stop Hitler and Mussolini, so the dictators were able to gain power and conquer several nations. Moving on, one of the league’s major contributions to the war was its reaction to Italy’s Abyssinian invasions. While this invasion was happening, Hitler gathered his forces and rearmed the Rhineland which of course led to World war two. Manal & Arthi Failure of the League in Manchuria League Of Nations Fails to stop anschluss To start things off, there are several reasons why war broke in Europe in 1939 and the failure of the league of nation is one of the important reason that lead to the war in Europe, the league of nation is weak and also the member countries such as Britain and France were busy recovering their economy after world war one, therefore they left Germany alone with aggressiveness, because the league has no standing army to stop Germany’s aggression, for example Thus, Germany is combined with Austria since Austria was economically suffering after World War One as well due to the heavy reparation fee and the break-up of its empire in others word this development is called “anschluss”. Moreover the League of Nation failed to stop Germany by trying a process called appeasement, but it didn’t work. Therefore the failure of the League of nation is one of the reason lead to the broke out of war in Europe. Germany & Austria By: Mathushah Gowripalan Failure of the League of Nations in Manchuria Outcome
-Instead they left the League
-Many countries were affected by this
-Japan stayed in Manchuria
-The League of Nations have failed The League
-Lord Lytton and group of officials were sent to take a better look at the problem
-This took them 1 year
-February 1933, Japan was told to leave Manchuria The Dispute
-World-wide economic depression
-Japan tried to overcome it by building an empire
-1932 the empire invaded Manchuria
-Threw out the Chinese and made their own government there; Manchoukuo -Great Depression after the 1930’s
-League failed in 1930s The League in Manchuria CONNOTATION
-The woman represents the League of Nations
-The document represents the Covenant DENOTATION
-Japanese soldier walks over the woman and the document that’s with her CONNOTATION
-Servility, surrender, is represented by the bow
-Flowers represent welcoming to the conqueror DENOTATION
-Bows to the Japanese solider
-Brings him flowers too DENOTATION
-Someone is powdering the League of Nation’s face
-Using a “face-saving kit” CONNOTATION
-The person in the suit represents the British Foreign Secretary, John Simon
-Saving face means making excuses Details
-David Low was a supporter of the League of Nations
-Low was one of the many British people who were angry and saw the Manchuria failure
-He thought it was a huge humiliation for the League of Nations Orgin
-From a British cartoonist, David Low • Because of the Great Depression, Italy wanted to
build an empire to secure raw materials.
• Mussolini was a fascist, and wanted to revive the
glories of Rome
• France and Britain needed Mussolini’s support
against Hitler (Stresa Pact 1935) 1. The Fascists continued to expand:
• Mussolini kept Abyssinia
• Hitler began to expand in Europe.
• Fascists took power in Spain
• Britain and France abandoned the League as a way
of keeping the peace - started to appease Hitler. Actions Pursued The Czech Crisis 2. The League was ‘a useless fraud’ (AJP Taylor):
• It was slow (the Report took 8 months).
• A country could get its own way if it ignored it.
• ‘Collective security' was useless against big
countries - especially during the Great Depression.
• Even the great powers within the League were
happy to ignore it (Japan was on the Council).
• Even Britain and France would betray the League.
• Nine countries left 1936-1939. Failure of the League By: Jehro Celemin Weakness Britain and France were unwilling to take a lead they feared Italian action against their interests in the area
Also wanted to keep Mussolini in the Stresa Front to contain the threat posed by Hitler.
The Hoare-Laval Plan discredited and weakened the League Why did the League Fail? "The crisis was fatal to the League. Nobody took it seriously again. They got ready for the Second World War." Written by the historian JR Western (1971) What this quote is saying is that the League of Nations could have stopped them in their tracks even though they passed up other oppurtunities in the past with japan. Instead of stopping Italy in their tracks by banning oil trades with Italy. Instead we improve our armies to defend them if they do happen to come to our countries "It is us today, it will be you tomorrow" In this quote Haile Selassie, warns the world that if you don't stop italy in its tracks they will just keep on taking over other pieces of land that might be yours. Why the League Failed The league had failed due to many reasons. The Treaty Of Versailles Article 160 and Article 181 state that Germany's troops must not exceed a limit. Due to the league not doing anything about Germany's army as it was gaining more soldiers, the league had let Germany break two articles. Covenants of the League of Nations Articles X (10) states that members of the league of nations will assist a member that is receiving aggression from another country.
Article 11 States that any war or threat of that affects any member of the league or not, will be a matter of concern to the whole league.
The league had failed to abide by these articles due to the fact that they had let Germany take the land of members of the league, for example Ethiopia. No Political Will The League of nations failed to have any political will. None of the members of league were able to take charge during a crisis and ended up getting nowhere.
An example of this is the Oil Sanction Issue - Walter Ridell had proposed that the league of nation impose an embargo on products that were crucial to Italy's war efforts. Due to the Canadian Governmen, he made it clear that in proposing oil sanctions, Riddell was not representing Canada. This had caused the league to have no leader during the oil sanctions causing them to get nowhere. America Structure Depression Unsuccessful Members Big Bullies Pg. 69 - CSI Textbook Pg. 70 - CSI Textbook Pg. 71 - CSI Textbook Sanctions did not work due to the greediness of the countries trying to recover from the Great Depression League was so weak due to no army and forces to stop any injustice happening everyone is concerned about their own development and could not 'spare' any reinforcements. America, the strongest and most stable nation at that time, was not even in the League of Nations and didn't plan to be. British and France, even if their influence combined, were not strong enough to impose the peace on their own. The structure of the League of Nations was unorganized and that results in the long processes of decision-making. “The 48 hours after the march into the Rhineland were the most nerve-racking of my life. If the French had opposed us then e would have had to withdraw. Our forces were not strong enough to even put up with moderate resistance.” -Hitler According to Haile Selassie, who should stop the aggressors? All the Countries in the League of Nations What will happen if the aggressors are not stopped? Mussolini would continue to take over the surrounding countries After the WWI the country of Czechoslovakia was formed. Once Hitler and his party NSDAP got into power, Hitler started demanding the Sudetenland to become a part of Germany since ethnic Germans lived in the region. France had signed an agreement with Czechoslovakia offering support if the country was attacked. However, Hitler could all but guarantee that in 1938, the French would do nothing. The USSR had also given Czechoslovakia a promise of help but the USSR was in internal chaos during this time and unlikely to help Czechoslovakia out. The British claimed that if there was the chance of negotiating a peace, then that chance should be taken. The policy of appeasement has been criticized over the years since 1938, but the fear of war in 1938 was very real. The first of three meetings took place at Bertesgaden, near Munich in southern Germany. At this meeting Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland should be handed over to Germany. Without consulting the Czechs, Chamberlain agreed that those areas containing more than 50% Germans within them should be handed back to Germany. Chamberlain managed to get the Czechs and the French to agree to this solution. Without consulting the Czechs, the four powers agreed that the Sudetenland should be given to Germany immediately. The governments of Britain and France made it clear to Czechoslovakia that if the Czechs rejected this solution, they would have to fight Germany by themselves. On October 1st 1938, the Czech frontier guards left their posts and German troops occupied the Sudetenland. Very shortly afterwards, Polish and Hungarian troops took areas of Czechoslovakia which contained a majority of Poles and Magyars. Manal.S The world-wide Depression caused countries to be greedy and blinded from the decisions that would benefit them in the long run. The more the league failed, the more the countries didn't trust it and it came to the point where they just ignored it. The members of the league were also the cause of their downfall. Italy and Japan betrayed while France and Britain let it happen. The league dealt with the weaker countries in the 1920s but in the 1930s., big bullies like Japan, Italy, and Germany attacked weaker countries and the league was too weak to stop them. Failure of the League French & British Absent Powers Ineffective Sanctions Lack of Armed Forces Unfair Treaty Reaching Decisions Both these countries looked upon their self-interests over the League's Key countries like the U.S.A did not join. Sanctions that were used did not stop the opposing countries or were not even used. The league had not troops of its own. Another job of the league was to enforce treaties some countries thought was unfair. Decisions took long to be finalized and it took ages for the league to act on them. Countries were thinking more on feeding their people and building more crops rather than sending reinforcements. In Manchuria... In Abyssinia... In Abyssinia... In Manchuria... Example: Manchurian Crisis Example: Disarmament Conference Example: Abyssinian Crisis By: Jehro Celemin By: Jehro Celemin Reich: Former state of Germany The Dark Valley