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OCR 21st Century GCSE: (P3) Sustainable Energy

Energy Introduction - Calculating Energy - Calculating Power - Global Supply Problem - Energy Efficiency - Generating Electricity - Inside Power Stations - Nuclear Power - Possible Energy Sources - Renewable Energy - National Grid - Sustainability
by

J Amuah-Fuster

on 8 July 2016

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Transcript of OCR 21st Century GCSE: (P3) Sustainable Energy

Turns a generator

Turns a turbine

Passes through a step-down transformer

To consumer

Passes along high voltage lines

Source of movement e.g. water, wind

Passes through a step-up transformer
L2: Calculating Energy Use
L10: How Renewable Energy Sources work
L1: Why do we need to know about energy?
Where does the energy come from?
L3: Calculating Power
How does power affect the amount of energy we use?
OCR 21st Century GCSE:
(P3) Sustainable Energy

L11: The National Grid
L12: Moja Island
L5: Energy Efficiency
Why is energy efficiency important?
L6: Generating Electricity
How can a magnet, wire and an ammeter show produce an electric curent?
L4: You, Me & The Global Supply Problem
L7: Inside Power Stations
Why do we need energy?
Ap3.1.3 Black out
Homework
What are the
PRIMARY SOURCES
of energy?
Explain why it is a problem that the need for energy is rising (including environmental impact)
Recall the main primary energy sources that humans use
Explain why electricity is called a secondary energy source
Explain the impacts of burning fossil fuels
How can we use less energy?

Which energy sources should we use?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of different ways of generating electricity?

How is energy used?

How can electricity be generated?

Why do we need to make decisions about nuclear power?
P3
Independent work
What do you think should be done?
What do we need to know to make the decisions?
Who should make the decisions?
Summary
Vs
Independent work
You need graph paper, pencil and ruler

To answer

1) Which country has the highest emissions per person?

2) Which nation has the largest overall emissions of CO2?
Why do you think this is so high?

3) Which G8 nation has the smallest emissions per person?
How much smaller is this than the figure for the USA?

4) What do you think contributes to the high emissions per person for the USA?

5) Global CO2 output is rising. Which nations do you think will contribute most to the increase over the next 5 years? Explain your answer.
AP3.1b - worksheet
Task:
What are the sources of energy looked at in the graph?
What sources of energy are missing?
Which source in used the most now?
Which source is used the least now?
Task
:
Why are we using more energy?
Why has energy consumption gone up so much?
Class work
What are the energy issues?
What is the biggest problem?
Plenary
CO2 levels in the atmosphere 1959–2010
Task:
Limited supplies of fossil fuels are not the only problem
.
What is the trend shown here?
What problems is this causing?
Task:
Currently (2009) how many years worth of oil does S. & Cent. America have?
Currently (2009) how many years worth of oil does North America have?
Projected number of years of oil supply available
(North America and Central and South America) 1980–2009
Task
:
Can we go on using oil at this rate?
What will you be doing in 40 years time?

Projected number of years of oil supply available (World) 1980–2009
It is the
width
of the band which is important!
Task
:
What is the trend in the graph?
Why do some regions use more than other?
Why have some regions started using a lot more?
World energy consumption (megatonnes oil equivalent – Mtoe), 1965–2009
Group work
In groups try and answer the question. Put your answer round the edge of the picture.

When you move to a new question read the answers written and see if you can add to this.
Task
To do:

Copy the definition
Complete the table by putting the primary sources under the correct title
Pair work
Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)
Nuclear fuels
Biofuels
Wind
Water
Radiation from the Sun
Independent work
What sort of questions might we be trying to answer?
Task
:
What are the important issues?
Which issues are most important to you?
BRITAIN FACES REGULAR POWER CUTS
Five of the country’s 14 coal-fired stations must close in 2015 to hit European environmental targets.
‘FOOD SHORTAGES LOOMING IN 25 YEARS’ WARNS EXPERT
Food shortages could hit the UK in 25 years time, a farming expert warned today.
Demand for biofuels, emerging third world economies, and climate change are all going to put pressure on world food supplies, said professor.
BRITAIN AT RISK OF ENERGY CRISIS
The UK needs to invest billions of pounds to meet renewable energy targets and to manage the risk of depending on imported gas.
Lesson Outcomes
Pair work
What are the primary sources of energy?
Write them down on the
post-its / whiteboards

Sort them into two columns….

Renewable
, and
Non-renewable
Radiation from the Sun (heat, light)
Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)
Nuclear fuels
Biofuels
Wind
Water (Hydroelectric, tidal, wave)
Renewable
means – a source of energy that can be used to generate electricity
with out being used up
Renewable Non-renewable Can be thought of as both
Petroleum is an oily mixture of solid, liquid, and gas. petrol, oil, and diesel fuel are all made from petroleum.
Most UK electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels.
using more and more
energy
What is the problem?
fossil fuels linked to
climate change
and cause
pollution
running out
of fossil fuels
It is the
width
of the band which is important!
MP3 player 0.0002 kW × 2 hours = 0.0004 kWh;

Hairdryer 0.7 kW × 1/12 hour = 0.06 kWh;

Kettle 2 kW × 0.67 hours = 0.13 kWh;

Games console 0.19 kW × 1 hour = 0.19 kWh;

Computer 0.25 kW × 2 hours = 0.5 kWh;

Television 0.3 kW × 5 hours = 1.5 kWh;

Washing machine 1.85 kW x 1.5 hours = 2.8 kWh;

Fan heater 1.5 kW × 2 hours = 3.0 kWh.
a = b
c
a = b x c
energy transferred = power × time


Calculating energy
What level of question can you do?

What could you work on? (WTI?)

From today’s lesson, write to me to tell me what you think found
- hard
- easy
- want to work on
From the question sheet:
a = b + c
Answer
a = b + c

Rearrange to
make
b
the subject
Can you rearrange equations?
How much energy do things use?
Put the tasks in the order you think they would come – from the
cheapest to the most expensive
.

Then calculate the number of kilowatt-hours
(
to turn W into KW divide the power by 1000
)
Calculating energy (Joules)
White boards
So power is the energy transferred per second and energy is the energy used in the time it is being used for.
Calculating energy (kWh)
Independent work
Starter
In the UK the energy cost (treat and distribute) of the average persons daily water use is about 0.4 kWh. How many Joules is this?
A large, less economical car needs about
1.3 kWh per mile. How many Joules is this?
1 kilowatt hour = 3 600 000 Joules
What is usual?
On the internet for –
an hour.
0.05 kilo watts
Drying your hair for –
30 minutes (1/2 hour)
1.5 kilo watts
Heating the water for a pot of tea –
3 minutes (0.05 hours)
2.2 kilo watts
On the internet for an hour
Explain the energy transfers going on in an electrical device

Use the following equation to calculate the amount of energy transferred in a process, in joules and in kilowatt hours:

energy transferred = power × time

(joules,J) (watts,W) (seconds,s)

(kWh) (kilowatts,kW) (hours,h)
Drying your hair for ten minutes
Heating the water for a pot of tea
Which uses
most
energy?
Which uses
least
energy?
Using an LED bike light for
30 minutes
1 watt
Keeping cool for
15 minutes
3 watts
Listening to music for
an hour
3 watts
How do you convert
minutes
into
seconds
?

How do you convert
hours
into
seconds
?
What
information
do you need?
Using an LED bike light for 20 minutes
Keeping cool for 15 minutes
Listening to music for an hour
Lesson Outcomes
Because energy could be calculated in
kWh
or
Joules
it is important to be able to:
energy transferred = power × time
(
kilo watt hours, kWh
)
(
hours, h
)
(
kilowatts, kW
)
(
joules, J
)
(
seconds, s
)
(
watts, W
)
energy transferred = power × time

(
kilo watt hours, kWh
)
(
hours, h
)
(
kilowatts, kW
)
energy transferred = power × time
(
joules, J
)
(
seconds, s
)
(
watts, W
)
1,440,000 J
4,680,000 J
Answers
-

from cheapest to dearest
a = b/c

Rearrange to
make
b
the subject
a = b x c

Rearrange to
make
b
the subject
subtract
c
from both sides
a-c = b + c - c
a-c = b
a = b
c
a = b x c
c c
a x c = b
a x c = b x c
c
Answer
Answer
divide both sides by
c
multiply both sides by
c
How much energy do we use?
Recall that the power (in watts, W) of an appliance or device is a measure of the amount of energy it transfers each second
 
Use the following equation to calculate the rate at which an electrical device transfers energy:
What level did you get to?

What could you work on? (WTI?)

From the homework task, write to tell me what
topics
you:
- found hard
- found easy
- want to work on
Calculations sheet… Homework review
HINT: Use equations to support your answer!

Plenary: Qn 11 and 13
What electric
current
passes through a toaster when it is switched on?
What power does the fax machine use?
power (W) = voltage (V) × current (A)

power =
230
V ×
1
A

power = 230 W
What is the
voltage
used by the fax machine in the UK?
What is the
current
used?
Rearranging equations
What is the
maximum

power
of the toaster?
What
voltage
will the toaster operate at in the UK?
How can we use these details to calculate the
current
?
Which is the most powerful object?
What is this? What does it do?
How much power does a fax machine use?
How much power?
Calculate the current passing through the toaster
230 V
1550 W
= current
power (W) = voltage (V) × current (A)
LEAST
MOST
Power
(in
watts, W
) of an appliance or device is a measure of the
amount of energy
(
J or kWh
)
it transfers each second
, i.e.
the
rate
at which it transfers energy
Power
Power = Voltage × Current
Lesson Outcomes
(amperes, A)
(Watts, W)
(volts, V)
Power = Voltage × Current
(amperes, A)
(Watts, W)
(volts, V)
Because the voltage is between 220V and 240V, we use 230 as an average (mean).
Why does one kettle boil faster than the other?
Think about
rate
of
energy transfer
Why do they have to start peddling when the shower is turned on?
Where do they get their power from?
Answers
Current (A)
Voltage (V)
Power = Voltage × Current
(amperes, A)
(Watts, W)
(volts, V)
current = 6.7 A
1550 W = 230 V × current
Divide both sides by
230

V
to find the current.
In a group of 4 or 5 try and
answer the questions from the sheet

Now meet up with students who did the other sheets and feedback
AP3.4.1 Worksheet
(Higher tier)
Why the difference?
Building homes uses about 1 kWh per person per day.
Interpret and process data on energy use, presented in a variety of ways
Lesson Outcomes
How much do we use?
Try to THINK of 5 ways we can reduce our energy consumption in the UK…
To finish:
?
The armed forces work on behalf of everyone in the country.
Our share of their energy use is about 4 kWh per person per day.
Building and maintaining roads uses about 2 kWh per person per day.
Supermarkets use about 0.5 kWh per person per day.
Computer servers are at the core of many businesses and at the heart of the internet.
They need energy to drive the computers and even more energy to cool them.
Servers across the UK use about 0.5 kWh per person per day.
The
energy
used to
grow
the cotton,
weave
the cloth, and
make
the garment contributes to the average energy use
in China,
not the UK
.
These jeans are made in China.
Does we have a responsibility for the energy use in China?
How can we contribute to the global reduction of energy use?
Who's fault?
Width
of bars represents the
amount of energy

Length
of the bar
does not matter

The amount of
input
energy
must equal
the
total output
energy (energy is conserved)

Input and output bars should be
labelled
Sankey diagrams - Rules
Question 4
Calculate the
efficiency
of a car, in
percent
, which produces
46J useful energy
output for
every 92J energy put in
?
Question 1
White board quiz
A heater generates
40J of heat per 120J input energy
.

Calculate the
efficiency
, show your answer as a
percentage
Efficiency = (height after bounce ÷ height before bounce) x 100
AIM: To identify the most efficient surface for ball sports.
Higher; C - A* grade
Draw your own Sankey diagrams for the following objects
Interpret and construct
Sankey

diagrams
to show understanding that energy is
conserved
 
Use an equation to calculate the
efficiency
of energy transfer
Lesson Outcomes
Why have we all switched?
Question 5
Which is most
efficient
?

Sharp TV
:
42J useful
energy output,
11J wasted
energy output

Sony TV
:
63J useful
energy input,
18J wasted
energy output
Question 3
A lamp produces
75J of light
and
5J heat
.

What is the
efficiency
of the lamp shown as a
decimal

Question 2
A Radio produces
50J of sound
and
10J heat
.

What is the
ratio

of

useful to wasted
energy?
How
efficient
is the
incandescent light
bulb?
How
efficient
is the
energy efficient
light bulb?
Approximate watts used by different bulbs to deliver the same light output as a 100W incandescent globe
But what does being efficient mean?
More efficient . . . .
Level 1
: I can work out the missing information needed to calculate efficiency

Level 2
: I can calculate efficiency as a percentage and as a decimal

Level 3
: I can calculate efficiency as a ratio in the simplest form
To Do
Complete the worksheet and stick it in your books
0.4
2:3
40%
Calculate the efficiency as a
percentage
A light bulb uses
25J of electricity
.
It produces
10J of light
, and
the rest is wasted as heat
.
Efficiency
=
(GPE

after
the bounce ÷
GPE

before
the bounce
)
x 100
The ball
does not reach its original heigh
t.
This is because some
energy is transferred
when the ball hits the floor.

Gravitational Potential Energy
(GPE) is

proportional

to
height
.
So you can
compare

GPE
after the bounce to the GPE before
by

comparing the heights
and
calculate the efficiency
of the bounce
When a ball is dropped from a height, bounces off the floor and rebounds, the energy transformation is:
Which surface is most efficient for ball bouncing?
Foundation
E - C grade
Draw your own Sankey diagrams for the following objects
1 square = 10J
10 squares
Wasted energy
25J
Heat
Useful energy
75J
Light
100J
Electrical
Energy
1 square = 10J
Wasted energy
10 squares
60J
Heat
40J
Light
100J
Electrical
Energy
An
energy efficient
light bulb transferred
100J
of
electrical
energy to generate
75J
of
lighting
and
25J
of
heat
An
incandescent
light bulb transferred
100J
of
electrical
energy to generate
40J
of
lighting
and
60J
of
heat
Useful energy
Show the efficiency as a
ratio
.
Display your answer as a
decimal
Useful energy : wasted energy
or, for practical purposes;
= (
height after
bounce ÷
height before
bounce) x 100
Working in pairs, one of you holds the metre rule vertically and drops the ball from a height of 100 centimetres.

The other person kneels down and estimates the height of the rebound.
Which surface is most efficient for ball bouncing?
use
full
efficiency equation
divide percentage by 100
convert
decimal to a fraction
and
simplify
;
remember to put numbers in the correct order
?
Using
Sankey Diagrams
You can also generate a current by
spinning
the magnet near a coil of wire
4 marks = 4 minutes
Complete the exam question and stick it in your book
What did they do when the shower was turned on?
Where do they get their power from?
How could I make the bulb shine brighter?
Can you explain what is happening?
How does it work?
Electricity is so convenient because it is
easily transmitted over distances
and can be
used in many different ways
Make a list of all the things you have done so far today

Tick the ones that have required electricity

How would your day have been different if we did not have electricity?

Did you have to stand next to a power station to be able to do any of these activities?
Generating Electricity
Complete the worksheet and stick it in your books
Torch with no batteries, how does it work?
STARTER: Which power station is more efficient?
John’s teacher has given him the following equipment.
While the magnet is not moving, no field lines are cut so there is no voltage induced and no current flows.
While the bar magnet is moving into the coil, field lines are being cut and a voltage is induced across the coil. This means current flows around the circuit
While the magnet is being removed from the coil, field lines are cut and a voltage is induced meaning current flows
How does it work?
How is the greater efficiency achieved?
Watch the demo
Describe how John could use this equipment to induce a current.

Describe the actions he could take to increase the current induced and outline the consequences of this.
6 mark question
bar magnet
coil of wire
ammeter
Answer
Lesson Outcomes
Understand that electricity is convenient because it is easily transmitted over distances and can be used in many ways

Recall that mains electricity is produced by generators

Understand that generators produce a voltage across a coil of wire by spinning a magnet near it

Understand that the bigger the current supplied by a generator, the more primary fuel it uses every second
Magnetic Induction
How would a
hydroelectric power
station look different?
Pylon
Furnace
Cooling tower
Step-up transformer
Step-down transformer
Power line
Generator
Turbine
Boiler
1.
Environmental Impact
sourcing the raw materials
waste products
carbon dioxide emissions
What
factors
effect our choice of primary energy source?
1 → b
2 → d
3 → Answer 'a' is insufficient as it doesn't answer the question
4 → c

Advantages of fossil fuels
: known technology that is available now; produce a lot of energy from one power station.

Disadvantages
: produces carbon dioxide, air pollution – particulates and acid rain if not cleaned up; limited supplies, some from politically unstable regions of the world.
Answers
Complete worksheet on your own
What is the primary source for most of our electricity in the UK?
What do you need to generate electricity?
M________
M______
W____

Which of these would be provided by the turbine?
Inside a power station
Can you explain what is happening?
Draw a Sankey diagram to represent the energy transfers in each power station





Calculate the efficiency of each power station.
Thermal power stations burn many other fuels apart from fossil fuels, including plant material, animal waste, domestic waste and methane gas produced in landfill sites. However, these power stations can be less efficient than fossil fuel burning stations.

Explain why it is worth burning biomass and waste, even though the energy losses are much higher.

Suggest two reasons why people might object to a waste-burning power station being built in their neighbourhood
E
D
C
B
A
Complete the worksheet and stick it in your books
Write the statements out in the
correct order
to describe how a
non-fuel burning
power station works.
Power stations are
not 100% efficient
exhaust gases
cooling steam
Lesson Outcomes
Understand that in many power stations a
primary energy source
is used to
heat water
; the
steam
produced
drives a turbine
which is coupled to an
electrical generator

Label a block diagram showing the basic components and structures of
hydroelectric
and other
thermal power stations
Label the components of a thermal power station
Answer
Stored
Potential Energy
(in primary source) is
transferred
as electricity and heat
electricity
Compare answers with your neighbour
Justify your answers
Should your partner make changes?
2.
Economics
how available is the source
cost of waste removal
efficiency
Efficiency calculation
= 45 ÷ (25+30+45) = 0.45
= 60 ÷ (10+30+60) = 0.6
Coal
Gas
Answers
Answers
Explain why it is worth burning biomass and waste, even though the energy losses are much higher

Burning biomass and waste is less efficient, but the greenhouse gases released (CO2) do not contribute toward Global Warming, as they were recently removed from the atmosphere (photosynthesis)


Suggest two reasons why people might object to a waste-burning station being built in their neighbourhood

Objections may include:
Unpleasant smells produced from waste storage / burning
Air pollutants/particulates released close to where they live
Traffic produced by transport lorries bringing in waste
Reduce land value / house prices of local area
Understand that the choice of energy source for a given situation depends upon a number of factors including:
A. Environmental impact B. Economics
C. Waste produced D. Carbon dioxide emissions

Describe advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources, including
non-renewable
energy sources such as:
A. Fossil fuels B. Nuclear

And
renewable
energy sources such as:
C. Biofuel D. Solar
E. Wind F. Water (waves, tides, hydroelectricity)
G. Geothermal
M ovement
M agnets
W ires


Movement
C
A
B
E
D
Copy and complete the sentences by unscrambling the red words
L8: Nuclear Power
Complete the worksheet and stick it in your books
How does nuclear power work?
You need to understand that the choice of energy source for a given situation depends upon a number of factors including:

a
. environmental impact

b
. economics

c
. waste produced

d
. Carbon dioxide emissions
Write a sentence about nuclear power that goes with
a - d
Markscheme
Highlight or underline the
most important
information to you.
Debate
It’s not all bad...
You have 3 minutes to draw and label as many of the components of a fuel-burning power station as you can
What can you remember?
Fukushima disaster
Radioactive contamination occurs when radioactive material lands on or gets inside something.

Exposure to this radiation is called irradiation.
Nuclear sites are monitored to make sure that workers and the public are not put in danger from radioactive material
Waste from Nuclear power stations
Better or worse than CO2?
As you watch the video, copy and fill in a table like the one below.
What is the difference between a nuclear power station and a coal-burning one?
What do you already know?
Nuclear Power
You have another 3 minutes annotate your drawing to show what is happening at each stage
Ionising radiation can damage the DNA in cells and kill them

This can cause cancerous cells to develop!
Radioactive waste emits
ionizing radiation
.
Ionisation
happens when a
photon
with enough energy
hits an atom or molecule
inside a material.
Ionising radiation
rieovaictad
rwagmni
glalbo
diidoex
ocrnab
gbnunir
enluci
In a nuclear power station, energy is released from changes in the _______ of the atoms of the nuclear fuel (uranium)
In a fossil fuelled power station, energy is released by _______ the fossil fuel (e.g. coal)
Fossil-fuel power stations release lots of _________ _________as a waste product. This gas contributes to ________ ________
Nuclear power stations produce __________ waste
L9: Possible Energy Sources
Understand that a
renewable
source is one that
does not get used up
because it is
replenished
by incoming energy
from the Sun
(
apart from geothermal and tidal
)

Explain that
wind
,
wave
,
tidal
, and
HEP
can drive turbines
directly
and
geothermal
can heat water or
produce steam
to drive turbines

Explain that
solar radiation
can be used to
heat water
, or
generate electricity
using
solar cells
Learning Outcomes
Which Energy Source?

Burning Fossil Fuels
£80 per MWh
Geothermal
Steam
turns the turbine
£2 Billion to build
£92 per MWh
Nuclear
£55 per MWh
£125 per MWh
Solar
£120 per MWh
£££ TO MAKE!!
Wind Power
£105 per MWh
Biofuel
£200 per MWh
Hydroelectric
£305 per MWh
Wave
£305 per MWh
Tidal
Plant photosynthesis
Try exam question 10
Non-renewable
Fossil

fuels
-
Nuclear
-
energy released when splitting an atom
.

Renewable energy sources:
Biofuel
-
Solar
-
Wind
-
Water
(waves, tides, hydroelectricity) -
Geothermal
-
Write a sentence to explain what each of these energy sources are
What does your graph show?
Does doubling the cloud cover half the Energy output? Prove your finding using your graph.
So do solar panels work only half as well in half the sun?
Could you use solar panels in the Arctic all the year around?
What time of summer’s day are solar panels most effective?
On a hot summer’s day do you really need all the energy generated by your solar panel?
Plot a graph…
Apparatus, Solar panel, 8 layers of tissue paper, these are the clouds, Multi-meter. Leads and crocodile clips.
Method. Connect the panel to the multi-meter with leads and croc clips via com and Ω. Turn the dial to 20 KΩ
Then under a light ( the strip light will do) get an initial reading and then take readings for each tissue paper you cover the panel with.



Aim. To see if doubling the cloud cover halves the energy output.


We need to consider:
Economics (money)
Environmental impact (carbon dioxide?)
Efficiency
Power output and lifetime
Video IP3.10.4 Power production – renewable parts 3 and 4 on wind and solar energy
Listening skills required…
Jot down 3 reasons for using renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels.
Lesson Outcomes
describe advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources, including non-renewable energy sources
High current leads to a loss of power from the power lines.
power wasted in heating cables = 0.4 x (current)
Why does electricity demand vary during the week?
How does electricity get from the power station to the consumer?

understand that the National Grid is a network of cables that connects consumers to power stations

explain that mains voltage is 230 V but the voltage across most of the grid is much higher

explain that the grid voltage is higher to reduce energy loss by heating in the cables

The National Grid
Why are the demand curves these shapes?
Power is distributed through a series of cables.

Dinorwig Power Station
A range of different power stations in appropriate places.
Interconnected by high-voltage transmission lines.
Power supply can balance demand over the whole country.
Power lines
Voltage = 275000V
Current =
?
Household electricity
Voltage = 230V
Current =
?
Power station
Voltage = 25000V
Current =
?
Why do the power lines in the national grid carry electricity at such a high voltage?
Many people object to the pollution produced by the UK’s gas, oil and coal power stations. The current nuclear reactors are coming to the end of their working lives.
What factors should a government take into account when planning a future energy policy?

6 marks
Exam Question


Moja Island


The government has decided to invest money to
generate electricity on Moja Island.

Your task: As a group of scientists, you have been asked to identify the most appropriate renewable energy options for village communities on Moja Island.
Learning Objective

To identify the most appropriate renewable energy options for an island community.
Which were the overall popular choices of renewable Energy for Moja island?
Map of Moja Island

Set of Renewable Energy fact cards

Moja Island Community card

Renewable Energy Choices worksheets
Each group needs:
Renewable Energy options?
A big issue: no electricity?
Did you know that nearly one third of people in the world don’t have access to electricity from a national grid?
Moja Island

Moja island is a small country situated off the East Africa coast in the Indian ocean.

It has no mains electricity.

The 1,450 islanders mainly use kerosene lamps and candles for lighting and fuel wood for cooking food.
Running off the river
In Kenya, 96% of people don’t have access to grid electricity.

A community from Mbuiri, a village north of Nairobi, have channelled part of a river to generate electricity from small-scale hydro-electric power schemes.
Communities sorting their energy solutions
Video clip:
Many people living without mains electricity find other ways to generate electricity.

In Sri Lanka – these children are looking forward to having light in their home generated by a small wind turbine.
Picture from PA

No mains electricity
The majority of people without access to mains electricity live in remote areas in developing countries.
And there’s little chance of being connected in the near future!

Why do you think that is?
Can you think of some options for renewable energy that might be suitable for Moja Island?
See ShowMyHomeWork
Think about it...
Consider your day so far today.

What have you used energy for?
During what activities has energy been used
by someone else
,
on your behalf
?
10 x 100 =
10%
100
75 x 100 =
75%
100
Powering an Electric Shower
In a group of 4 or 5 try and
answer the questions from the sheet

Now meet up with students who did the other sheets and feedback
AP3.4.1 Worksheet
(Foundation tier)
energy
power
time
There are
two

ways
to calculate energy:
transfer
time
between
seconds
&
hours
(
1h = 3600 x s
),
transfer
power
between
watts
&
kilowatts
(
1000 x W = 1kW
)
Pair discussion
Hint:
Use power ratings from previous lesson
(40/120) x 100 = 33.3%
50:10 = 5:1
75/(75+5) = 75/80 = 0.94
(46/92) x 100 = 50%
Books closed
Disadvantages of nuclear power
Advantages of nuclear power
WHY?
What is the question asking you to?
What are the
command
words in the question?
Public Safety
contamination
irradiation
Against - social /political
Against - environmental
Against - economical
Against - moral
Against - social /political
Against - environmental
Heat
Heats land
Water cycle
Wind
Waves
Lighting
Hydroelectricity
Biofuel
Gas
Coal
These fuels are
burnt
to produce steam
Non-renewable
£££ TO MAKE!!
£££ TO MAKE!!
£££ TO MAKE!!
£££ TO MAKE!!
Where does the energy come from?
NON-RENEWABLE FUEL TO CREATE STEAM
RENEWABLE FUEL
USING HEAT TO MAKE STEAM
USING HEAT
OR
LIGHT
USING MOVEMENT TO
DIRECTLY
TURN TURBINES
Large current = more power lost
If you increase the voltage in the power lines the current decreases.

P =I R
Power lost = current x resistance
Electric Power lost in the form of heat
2
2
2
Starter
Complete worksheet AP3.10.1
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/renewable-energy-sources/474.html
Alternative video
Answers
http://practicalaction.org/our-work/ourwork_energy
http://practicalaction.org/our-work/ourwork_energy?id=microhydro
Video clip
Full transcript