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Cultural Show & Tell Assignment
Transcript of Cultural Show & Tell Assignment
Clothing tip 101
The major religion in Iraq is Islam, followed by about 97% of Iraqis, although some results seem to contradict these numbers, the other 3% consist of those following Christianity and other religions. Many cities throughout Iraq have been areas of historical prominence for both Shia and Sunni Muslims
Christmas - Christmas Day celebrates the birth of Jesus. A rich variety of songs and carols have developed and it is traditional to depict the nativity in the manger through sets in churches and homes and plays which re-enact the events of the story. Evergreens are also traditional as symbols of unfailing life. Feasting and gift giving are the order of the day. The Christmas season lasts for twelve days. Those Orthodox Churches who retained the old calendar celebrate all fixed festivals thirteen days after the Western Churches. [December 24/25 in Western churches] More about Christmas.
Depending on where you are from in the Middle East you would usually have to dress modest whether you are going out, at home, at school and the way you dress in general to show respect for yourself.
Geography of Iraq
Area: 438,317 sq km
Fertile plains of the tigris and Eurphrates rivers; high mountains to the north and Syrian desert in the south west. Site of the ancient Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian Empires.
Iraq, a triangle of mountains, desert, and fertile river valley, is bounded on the east of Iran, on the north by Turkey, on the west by Syria and Jordan, and on the south by Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The country had arid desert land west of the Eurphrates, a broad central valley between Eurphrates and Tigris, and mountains in the northeast. This is located near a body of water called Persian Gulf.
Desert mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snow that tends to melt during the early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq.
Religion in Iraq
Iraq's Muslims follow two distinct traditions, Shia and Sunni Islam. According to the CIA World Factbook, Iraq is 97% Muslim (60-65% Shi'a, 32-37% Sunni). Iraq is home to many religious sites important for both Shia and Sunni Muslims. Baghdad was a hub of Islamic learning and scholarship for centuries and served as the capital of the Abbasid.
Christianity was brought to Iraq in the first century by the Apostle Thomas, Addai (Thaddaeus) and his pupils Aggagi and Mari. Thomas and Thaddeus belonged to the twelve Apostles. Iraq's Syriac Christian minority represents roughly 3% of the population, mostly living in Northern Iraq. There are no official statistics, and estimates vary greatly. In 1950 Christians numbered 10% of the population of 5.5 million.
Judaism first came to Iraq under the rule of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. It was a part of the Babylonian Captivity. After the 6 Day War in Israel, rioting caused the majority of Jews to flee. Fewer than 100 Jews remained in Iraq.
Advent Sunday - The start of the Christian year. Four Sundays before Christmas, anticipation mounts. The period is often counted through by the use of Advent calendars and Advent wreaths, on which an additional candle is lit each Sunday till Christmas, signifying the transition from darkness to light.
As a Christian Iraqi, me and my family tend to celebrate the same holidays as most christians would on Easter, Christmas, thanksgiving, and many more holidays.
Although Iraq's population of Christians is very low, the percentage of christians has been moving up and has increased over the years. Growing up as a christian household we celebrated on the same days as other canadianized iraqis
The men do not need to dress as modest as
the girls because gender roles plays a big role
in clothing when it comes to the Middle East.
Some men, depending on where they live in the
Middle East are able to chose what they wear at all times. The men take charge of their own wardrobe most of their life when they hit a certain age of maturity.
Girls need to be covered at all times. Showing or revealing skin can give someone the wrong impression and that you do not take your religion serious. Depending on where you are in the Middle East, the dress code may be a tad different but showing too much skin is never socially acceptable.
Covering your hair
below the knee's or ankles
no beach wear
no tight pieces of clothing
long or short sleeve
Hair out in the open
The official language of Iraq is Arabic. Many other languages are spoken by a variety of ethnic groups, most notably Kurdish. “Iraqi Arabic” (also known as Mesopotamian Arabic [Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, Baghdad Arabic, Furati, 'Arabi, Arabi, North Syrian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq south of Baghdad as well as in neighboring Iran and eastern Syria.
The majority of Iraqis are Muslims regardless of ethnicity. Its position in Iraq went through a transition during Saddam Hussein’s regime as the state moved from a secular one to one needing Islam to prop up their actions. At this stage the words “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the Greatest) was added to the flag. During Saddam’s regime only Sunnis held real power.
With the overthrow of Saddam’s regime the Shia majority now hold more power and influence than in the past. As well as the power shift people have also been able to express their religious identities a lot more freely.
The Shia and Sunnis are similar in over 95% of ways. The differences are not as acute as one would think. Essentially the split occurred to the political question of who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as the leader of the community. Major differences between the two occur in jurisprudence (i.e. how to pray, how to marry, inheritance) and minor elements of faith.
Regardless of orientation Islam prescribes a way of life and it governs political, legal, and social behaviour. It organises one’s daily life and provides moral guidance for both society and the individual. The rules of Islam come from the Quran and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (known as “hadith”).
Quick and easy words!
Arabic is the official language in Iraq ,spoken by nearly 87% of the population ,lately in the new constitution Kurdish is also considered a second official language .there are other languages spoken by small groups such as Turkmen,Calidian and others .but Arabic is the most widely spoken language through out the nation and no Farsi is spoken here except for a few words in the colloquial Iraqi.
Purple = Institutional. The language has been developed to the point that it is used and sustained by institutions beyond the home and community.
Blue = Developing. The language is in vigorous use, with literature in a standardized form being used by some though this is not yet widespread or sustainable.
Green = The language is nonstandard and in vigorous use among all generations
Yellow = Inter generational transmission is in the process of being broken, but the child-bearing generation can still use the language so it is possible that revitalization efforts could restore transmission of the language in the home.
Red=The only fluent users (if any) are older than child-bearing age, so it is too late to restore natural intergenerational transmission through the home; a mechanism outside the home would need to be developed.
Black=The language has fallen completely out of use and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language.
This graph shows the profile of languages in Iraq with respect to their status of language development versus language endangerment. Each individual language that has an entry for Iraq is included in the profile. The horizontal axis represents the estimated level of development or endangerment as measured on the EGIDS scale. (See the pages on Development and Endangerment for a fuller explanation.) The height of each bar indicates the number of languages that are estimated to be at the given level. Consult the Status listings for Iraq in order to see the specific languages for each level.
Due to the hierarchical nature of organizations or businesses the leader of an Iraqi team does most of the talking for his company or department. Subordinates are there to corroborate information or to provide technical advice and counsel to the most senior Iraqi.
It is a good idea to send any information or agendas in Arabic in advance. If you are bringing a team send the names, titles, and a brief business bio of people attending.
Decisions are generally made by the top of the company but this will be based on recommendations from pertinent stakeholders and technical experts who sit in on meetings.
Expect interruptions during meetings when phone calls may be taken or people enter the room on other matters. This should not be seen negatively; one should simply remain patient and wait for matters to return to them.
Iraqis often have several side discussions taking place during a meeting. They may interrupt the speaker if they have something to add. They can be loud and forceful in getting their point of view across.
Meeting and Greeting
Iraqi business people are relatively formal in their business dealings.
The common Arabic greeting is "asalaamu alaikum" (peace be with you), to which you should respond "wa alaikum salaam" (and peace be with you).
The most common business greeting is the handshake with direct eye contact.
Handshakes can be rather prolonged; try not to be the first person to remove your hand.
Men should wait to see if a woman extends her hand.
Business cards are given out.
It’s a nice touch to have one side of your card translated into Arabic
If you are invited to an Iraqi’s home, bring a box of cookies, pastries or a box of chocolates. A fruit basket is also appreciated.
Flowers are being given more and more but only to a hostess.
If a man must give a gift to a woman, he should say that it is from his wife, mother, sister, or some other female relation.
A small gift for the children is always a good touch.
Gifts are given with two hands.
Gifts are generally not opened when received.
Global perspective vs country perspective
Government: parliamentary democracy
Iraqi cuisine or Mesopotamian cuisine has a long history going back some 10,000 years – to the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Ancient Persians. Ancient Iraq recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals – the first cookbooks in the world. Ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia, was home to a sophisticated and highly advanced civilization, in all fields of knowledge, including the culinary arts. However, it was in the Islamic Golden Age when Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) that the Iraqi kitchen reached its zenith. Today, the cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influences from the culinary traditions of neighboring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area.
Meals begin with appetizers and salads – known as Mezza. Some dishes include Kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled), Gauss (grilled meat sandwich wrap, similar to Döner kebab), Bamieh (lamb, okra and tomato stew), Quzi (lamb with rice, almonds, raisins and spices), Falafel (fried chickpea patties served with amba and salad in pita), Kubbah (minced meat ground with bulghur wheat or rice and spices), Masgûf (grilled fish with pepper and tamarind), and Maqluba (a rice, lamb, tomato and aubergine dish). Stuffed vegetable dishes such as Dolma and Mahshi are also popular.
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
It estimated in 2003 that Iraq had 112 billion barrels (17.8×109 m3). The United States Geological Survey in 1995 estimated proven reserves were 78 Gbbl (12.4×109 m3). Iraq may prove to contain the largest extractable deposits of oil in the entire Middle East once these upgrading and facility improvements have advanced.
Iraq has the world's second largest proven oil reserves. According to oil industry experts, new exploration will probably raise Iraq's reserves to 200+ billion barrels of high-grade crude, extraordinarily cheap to produce. The four giant firms located in the US and the UK have been keen to get back into Iraq, from which they were excluded with the nationalization of 1972. During the final years of the Saddam era, they envied companies from France, Russia, China, and elsewhere, who had obtained major contracts. But UN sanctions (kept in place by the US and the UK) kept those contracts inoperable.
The Iraqi constitution of 2005, greatly influenced by US advisers, contains language that guarantees a major role for foreign companies. Negotiators hope soon to complete deals on Production Sharing Agreements that will give the companies control over dozens of fields, including the fabled super-giant Majnoon. But first the Parliament must pass a new oil sector investment law allowing foreign companies to assume a major role in the country. The US has threatened to withhold funding as well as financial and military support if the law does not soon pass. Although the Iraqi cabinet endorsed the draft law in July 2007, Parliament has balked at the legislation. Most Iraqis favor continued control by a national company and the powerful oil workers union strongly opposes de-nationalization. Iraq's political future is very much in flux, but oil remains the central feature of the political landscape.
The world's leading oil companies have been expanding Iraq's giant southern fields - Rumaila led by BP, West Qurna-1 run by Exxon and Zubair operated by Eni - since 2010 when they signed a series of service contracts with Baghdad.
Canada would face some encounters when trading with Iraq, due to the fact that U.S.A has had war with Iraq for many of years. This impacts us because we have very close ties with U.S.A and if war does happen we will participate and be on U.S.A side. Also from the foreign affairs it says Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada advises against non-essential travel to Iraq due to the dangerous and unpredictable security situation.
If you choose to travel to Iraq despite this warning, ensure that you are accompanied by professional security escorts at all times and carefully review your security arrangements on a regular basis. The Government of Canada’s ability to provide consular assistance in all parts of Iraq is severely limited.