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Transcript of Clauses
2.) Adjective Clauses
3.) Adverb Clauses
A clause is another word we use for a sentence. Clauses can be Independent or dependent.
But regardless of whether it is dependent or independent, all clauses contain a
An independent clause is also known as a complete sentence, because it can be understand without any additional information.
For example: "My aunt Linda (Subject) has always been (verb phrase) an inspiration to me."
In this example there is only one subject and one verb (this is a simple sentence).
A dependent clause is one that cannot be fully understood without additional information.
Example: "Because I (subject) love (verb) writing"
Notice how it contains a subject and a verb just like an independent clause? However, this example is an depedent clause because it does not fully provide the needed information, since it begs the question "because why?"
To be made a complete sentence, you must add more:
"I (subject) want (verb) to be an author, because I (subject) love (verb) writing"
This kind of complete sentence is a complex sentence, because it combines a dependent
clause with an independent clause.
Anytime you have more than one subject and verb, your sentence will no
longer be considered a simple sentence (it will either be
complex or compound).
What is a clause?
So now that you know what makes a clause dependent or independent, we can move on to talk about the different kinds of dependent clauses:
Noun clauses can play the role of a noun, so they can be subjects, direct objects, appositives, or predicate nouns.
Noun clauses are often confused with adjective clauses because they can start with relative adverbs (where, when, why, how) and relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, that, and which).
So when you see any of these words, be sure to check the role the clause is playing to make sure you are not confusing the two.
Also known as Dependent Clauses
Starting with the basics
Function as nouns
Be careful not to confuse a clause with phrase.
Phrases will be missing a subject or a verb, but usually a verb. A phrase can be attached to a simple sentence and the simple sentence will remain simple.
A sentence only changes to complex or compound if a clause is used. So be sure to identify whether there is a subject and a verb in the clause/phrase before labeling it.
Noun Clause Examples
1.) "I (subject) cannot tell (verb) you
what she (subject) said is (verb) a secret
." --This is a complex sentence, because "what she.... secret" is a noun clause that is connected to the main clause "I cannot tell you."
2.) "I ( subject) didn't know (verb)
how she (subject) got (verb) hurt.
" This one functions as the direct object of
the main clause/sentence is "I didn't know."
3.) "Her demand (subject),
that she (subject) be treated (verb) like a princes on her birthday
, were met (verb phrase)." This noun clause functions as an appositive for
Anytime there is more than one subject and verb in a sentence, you are dealing with more than one clause, whether those clauses are dependent or independent varies sentence by sentence.
Adjective clauses work like adjectives, which means they will always describe a noun by providing additional, identifying details.
Adjective clauses, like noun clauses, begin with relative pronouns (
who, whose, whom, whomever, that, which
) or relative adverbs (
why, where, when
These details will always help to identify more about the noun the adjective clause is modifying. The kinds of details it will answer will be
what kind/type, which one, whose, or how many.
1.) I (subject) felt guilty (verb phrase) for not playing with my dog
whose warm, warm brown eyes (subject) stared (verb) at me with desire
. This clause is a an adjective modifying dog by explaining more about him.
2.) My car (subject) is parked (verb phrase) by the fire hydrant
that (subject) is (verb) painted yellow
. This clause identifies which fire hydrant my car is parked by.
3.) Running (subject),
which (subject) is
(verb) Oliver's favorite hobby
, is (verb) highly overrated. This one provides more detail on the noun running.
In every instance, the adjective clause gives more details about a noun within the sentence.
Adverb clauses function like adverbs, which means they will add clarifying details to verbs or other adjectives.
Adverb clauses will start with subordinating conjunctions: after, although, as, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order that, once, provided that, rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, while, why.
These subordinating conjunctions prevent the sentence from being a complete thought, since they require further information.
Adverb clauses will answer these questions about a verb: how, when, why, where, or to what extent. Though adverbs may do other things, they will always help clarify information.
Adverbs clauses are the easiest of the three
types to identify.
Examples of Adverb Clauses:
Although I (subject) like (verb) movies
, the books (subject) are (verb) better." The clause "although.... movies" does not express a complete thought.
2.) "I (subject) shut (verb) the door
because it (subject) was (verb) mosquito season.
" This one explain WHY I shut the door.
3.) "I love reading books,
whereas my sister (subject) would rather (verb phrase) socialize
." This modifies
by providing a contrast.
4.) We (subject) can go (verb)
once I (subject) finish eating (verb) dinner.
" This one modifies
we can go.
In this lesson you have learned to identify a noun clause,
an adjective clause, and an adverb clause.
Each one has different characteristics.
: functions as a noun and will start with a relative pronoun or a relative adverb.
: will give identifying details to a noun and will start with a relative pronoun or a relative adverb.
will modify a verb or an adjective. It will provide clarifying details, and start with a