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Chapter 6- Learning

Psychology Project
by

Kenneth Jones

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 6- Learning

Chapter 6 Learning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Learning Operant Conditioning Biology, Cognition, and Learning Some Basic Forms of Learning Cognitive Learning
Observational Learning
Associative Learning
(classical & operant conditioning) Cognitive Learning Associative Learning Through Cognitive Learning we acquire mental information that guides our behavior. Information can be acquired through language, observing events, or by watching others. Observational learning is a form of cognitive learning. It involves learning by watching events take place, instead of learning associations between different events. We learn all kinds of specific behaviors by observing and imitating others, a process called modeling. ex. Chimps inside of zoos often learn
behavior by watching other chimps.
If one sees another to a trick and gain a food reward, he may perform the trick to gain the reward as well Albert Bandura Bandura was the pioneering researcher of observational learning. In the Bobo doll experiment, Bandura was hoping that the experiment would prove that aggression can be explained. Bandura's research analyzed human learning and the willingness of children and adults to imitate behavior observed in others, especially aggression. The results showed many children, especially little boys, are more likely to mimic aggressive behavior than any other type of behavior. Associative learning is learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli ( an event or action that provokes response) or a response and it's consequences. The process of learning associations is called conditioning, and conditioning has 2 main forms: Operant & Classical Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which we learn to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate certain events Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened/increased by a reinforcer or decreased by a punisher

Actions are associated with consequences. In Positive Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of experiencing a positive condition. For example:
A hungry rat presses a bar in its cage and receives food. The food is a positive condition for the hungry rat. The rat presses the bar again, and again receives food. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of receiving food.

In Negative Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of stopping or avoiding a negative condition. For example:
A rat is placed in a cage and immediately receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. The shock is a negative condition for the rat. The rat presses a bar and the shock stops. The rat receives another shock, presses the bar again, and again the shock stops. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of stopping the shock. Ivan Pavlov Was the pioneer for classical conditioning (Pavlonian conditioning). He was a famous Russian physiologist. The concept for which Pavlov is famous is the "conditioned reflex." Pavlov realized, of course that giving a dog food caused it to salivate. Eventually the dog began to salivate to the person delivering the food, or to the sound the person's footsteps. ." At first Pavlov though his dog was "psychic." After many debates with his assistants he decided to experiment. They put the dog in a small room and attached a device in it's mouth to measure the saliva. From the next room they presented food in a bowl. After a while, when they presented the dog with food they would set off a tone (acquisition- the first stage of CC) Other Major Conditioning Processes Extinction- the weakening of a conditioned response when and unconditioned stimulus does not follow the a conditioned stimulus any longer

Spontaneous Recovery- the sudden reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

Generalization- tendency to respond to stimuli simila to the CS

Discrimination- the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli In Punishment a particular behavior is weakened by the consequence of experiencing a negative condition. For example:A rat presses a bar in its cage and receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. The shock is a negative condition for the rat. The rat presses the bar again and again receives a shock. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is weakened by the consequence of receiving a shock.

In Extinction a particular behavior is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing a positive condition or stopping a negative condition. For example:A rat presses a bar in its cage and nothing happens. Neither a positive or a negative condition exists for the rat. The rat presses the bar again and again nothing happens. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing anything positive or stopping anything negative. REINFORCEMENT Punishment & Extinction B. F. Skinner Was an aspiring English major and writer. He eventually entered graduate school in psychology. He is was the pioneer for operant conditioning and shaping. He created the concept of reinforcement, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. Shaping is operant conditioning in which reinforcers guide actions toward a desired behavior. Skinner was the creator of the operant chamber- a box with an attached recording device to track the rate at which an animal presses the box's bar (or button) to obtain a reinforcer. Other Classifications of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer- An event that is innately reinforcing, often satisfying a biological need

Conditioned (secondary) Reinforcer- An event that gains its reinforcing power through its link with a primary reinforcer

Partial (intermittent) Reinforcer- Reinforcement of a response only part of the time Our learning is the product of the interaction of biological, psychosocial, and social-cultural influences Limits on Conditioning Organisms come prepared to learn tendencies to aid survival

Each species comes prepared to learn those things crucial to its survival. Cognitive Processes and Conditioning 2 Important sets of influences on our learning are biological predispositions limit our learning, and our cognitive processes (thoughts, perceptions, and expectations) Mirror Neurons Mirror Neurons are the neurons that fire when we perform actions and when we observe others performing certain actions.

These neurons are the basis for imitation and observational learning Pavlov ans Skinner didn't necessarily believe that expectations influence conditioning. They rejected the belief that cognitive processes have a necessary place in psychology. To them, thoughts and emotions were behaviors that follow the same laws as other behaviors. This is labeled as behaviorism- the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviors without reference to mental processes Motivation There are 2 types of motivation

Intrinsic motivation- a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

Extrinsic Motivation- a desire to perform a behavior to gain a reward or avoid punishment Miscellaneous Terms from Chapter 6 Cognitive Map- a mental image of the layout of ones environment

Latent Learning- learning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

Prosocial Behavior- positive, helpful behavior. The opposite of anti-social behavior
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