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Romans: The Righteousness of God Revealed
Transcript of Romans: The Righteousness of God Revealed
5 through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith for the sake of his name among all the nations,
4 and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,
“1 Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,
2 which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3 concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh
Paul planned to preach in Rome on his way to Spain
“Judaizers” cancerous doctrine making its way to Rome
Paul writes to both prepare for his coming, and to “set straight the design and nature of the Gospel”
Purpose of Writing
57-58 A.D.; while on his third journey (Ac 20:1-3)
prior to his arrival to Jerusalem with the collection for the needy saints (15:25-26; Ac 20:16; 24:17).
Time of Writing
Paul, the apostle (1:1).
The authorship universally accepted
Ascribed to Paul by Clement of Rome, Polycarp, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and many other writers in the early church
Internal evidence is also supportive of Paul as its author
Romans 1:16-17 (ESV)
“For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “
The righteous shall live by faith.
In these two verses Paul states his confidence in the gospel and the reasons for it.
The bulk of his epistle is devoted to explaining why and how the gospel of Christ is God's power to save those who believe.
Start of the Church unknown
Aquila and Priscilla
From chapter 16: several house churches in Rome
Background of the Church
Corinth, as evident from the greetings of
Gaius, who lived at Corinth (16:23; 1 Co 1:14)
Erastus, who had settled down there (16:23; 2 Ti 4:20)
Phoebe, accompanied the epistle (16:1-2), was from the church at Cenchrea, a "suburb" of Corinth.
Place of Writing
The Righteousness of God Revealed
Paul's Epistle to the Romans
WORDS TO PONDER
- literally, "good news;" in the NT it denotes the good tidings of the kingdom of God and of salvation through Christ (VINE)
- "favor, goodwill, lovingkindness;" as used in reference to God's favor toward man, it's freeness is stressed; i.e., unmerited favor
- "trust, conviction;" produced by God's Word (Ro 10:17), it expresses itself through obedience and love (Ro 1:5; Ga 5:6)
- from the Greek word dunamis (from which derives "dynamite"); "strength, ability“ as part of ones nature.
righteousness of God
- 1) God doing that which is right (cf. Ro 3:25-26); or 2) God's way of making one right with Him (related to the concept of "justification," declaring one to be "not guilty;" cf. Ro 4:6-8)
At the cross, God judges sin and at the same time manifests His saving mercy
Part of the 3000 at Pentecost (Acts 2:10)
Dispersion resulting from Stephen’s death (Acts 8:1-4)
First Roman Christians mentioned
Expelled from Rome by Claudius
Met by Paul in Corinth on Paul’s 2nd missionary journey
Went back to Rome and hosted a house church
Primarily Gentiles with small amount of Jews
Faith and obedience well known
Could provide mutual edification with Paul
Salutation: the gospel concerning God's Son (1:1-7)
Final Summary of the Gospel of the Righteousness of God
The Extension of God's Righteousness through the Pauline Mission
God's Righteousness in everyday life
God's Righteousness to Israel and to the Gentiles
God's Righteousness in His Wrath Against Sinners
The Gospel as the Revelation of the Righteousness of God
The Saving Righteousness of God
Hope as a Result of Righteousness by Faith
“8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed in all the world.
Thanksgiving: prayer for an apostolic visit (1:8-15)
Theme: The gospel of the righteousness of God (1:16-17)
bond-servant: [doulos] - one who gives himself up to another’s will
kletos - divinely selected and appointed
apostolos - one sent forth with orders
aphorizo - to mark off from others by boundaries (perfect, passive, participle)
euaggelion - good tidings
designed by God and comes from God
proepaggellomai - to announce before
his Son, who as to his human nature: [sarx] - the body of a man
dunamis - inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature
“5 But if the slave plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,’ 6 then his master shall bring him to God, and he shall bring him to the door or the doorpost. And his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall be his slave forever.” (Ex 21:5–6 ESV)
Paul's place in life: servant & apostle (1)
Jesus fulfilled OT prophecy: as the human descendant of David (2-3)
divinely selected and appointed
“but God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.” (Rom 5:8 ESV)
charis: God's unmerited favor
“But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me was not in vain. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them, though it was not I, but the grace of God that is with me.” (1 Cor 15:10 ESV)
“even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ—by grace you have been saved—” (Eph 2:5 ESV)
“And after you have suffered a little while, the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ, will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.” (1 Pet 5:10 ESV)
Jesus declared to be the Son: by resurrection power (4)
Paul's mission in life: to bring about obedience of faith (5)
Paul's inclusion of the Romans (6-7)
The verb tense used by the writer to describe a completed verbal action that occurred in the past but which produced a state of being or a result that exists in the present (in relation to the writer). The emphasis of the perfect is not the past action so much as it is as such but the present “state of affairs” resulting from the past action.
The grammatical voice that signifies that the subject is being acted upon; i.e., the subject is the receiver of the verbal action.
A word that has characteristics of both a verb and an adjective — a “verbal adjective” (cf. the word “shining”).
Peace is not just the absence of conflict but echoes the OT concept of shalom, where a person’s life with God and with everything else is in ordered harmony, both physically and spiritually, and “all is well.”
This refers to Jesus as the God-man reigning in messianic power (“Son of God” was a Jewish title for the Messiah), and this reign began (i.e., was declared or initiated) at a certain point in salvation history, i.e., when Jesus was raised from the dead through the Holy Spirit.
2 Samuel 7:12–16 (ESV)
12 When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, 15 but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you. 16 And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.’ ”
...not merely to bring people to conversion but also to bring about transformed lives that were consistently obedient to God.
Paul’s ultimate goal in preaching to the Gentiles is for the sake of his name, that is, that Jesus Christ will be glorified. “Name” (onoma) here means reputation or honor.
1 Corinthians 9:1 (ESV)
"Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are not you my workmanship in the Lord?"
“4 If anyone else thinks he has reason for confidence in the flesh, I have more: 5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; 6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless. 7 But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ.” (Phil 3:4–7 ESV)
hagios: set apart as sacred and consecrated unto God.
1. Who wrote the epistle to the Romans?
Romans 1 :16-17
5. Where is the theme of this epistle stated?
Counter the false teachers
Plan for his visit
4. What is the purpose of this epistle?
3. What is the approximate date of writing?
2. From where was it written?
11 For I long to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift to strengthen you— 12 that is, that we may be mutually encouraged by each other’s faith, both yours and mine. 13 I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that I have often intended to come to you (but thus far have been prevented), in order that I may reap some harvest among you as well as among the rest of the Gentiles. 14 I am under obligation both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish. 15 So I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.” (Rom 1:8–15 ESV)
9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I mention you 10 always in my prayers, asking that somehow by God’s will I may now at last succeed in coming to you.
Paul's report of the Romans (v. 8)
Paul's deep desire to visit the Romans (v. 9-10)
Paul's reason and eagerness to visit the Romans (v. 11-15)
genitive case: one noun showing ownership of another noun or pronoun. In this phrase, it is Jesus Christ who owns those who are the called ones.
the gospel is no longer confined to the Jews but has also spread to the Gentiles in the Greco-Roman world.
Paul desires as an apostle to encourage the Christians in Rome, but it is also noteworthy that their faith serves to inspire and strengthen him as well.
Paul’s ministry is like bringing ripened crops as a gift to God. Paul neither “planted” nor “watered” the church at Rome (cf. 1 Cor. 3:6), but its increased maturity and obedience would be a harvest nonetheless.
Paul was under obligation (debtor) imposed by Jesus Christ, who ordained Paul as the apostle to the Gentiles. Greeks refers to those who spoke Greek and adopted Greek culture in the Greco-Roman world. Barbarians designates those outside of Greek culture.
For Paul “the gospel” is not just a call to initial saving faith but also a call to continue in a daily walk of faith (6:4; 8:4; 2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 5:6).
1. What is the main point of this section?
Both to Greeks and barbarians, both to wise and unwise
5. To whom was Paul obligated? (1:14)
To see them and share in their faith together
4. Why did Paul want to go to Rome? (1:11-12)
3. What was the objective of Paul's apostleship? (1:5)
To bring about the obedience of faith among all nations
2. How was Jesus declared to be the Son of God? (1:4)
With power, through His resurrection from the dead
The Gospel as the Revelation of the Righteousness of God (1:1-17)
Its respectability: nothing to be ashamed of (16a)
Its nature: the power of God (16b)
Its aim: salvation (16c)
Its scope: for everyone who believes (16d)
Its content: the revelation of God's righteousness through faith (17)
6. What is God's power to save? (1:16)
The gospel of Christ
7. Why is it God's power saves? (1:17)
In it the righteousness of God is revealed
“16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
Paul says that the Gospel is nothing to be ashamed of, for it is in fact a message coming with the power of God that brings people to salvation.
dunamis - inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature
17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith,as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.”” (Rom 1:16–17 ESV)
As a fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 12:1-3), God brought His salvation to the Jew first, who in turn became the conduit of redemption to also reach Greeks (gentiles).
A coordinating conjunction that indicates that additional information is to follow with respect to what is being described.
...right standing with God is by faith from start to finish.
pisteuo: to believe, entrust
the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. 19
what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them.
28 And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God,
God gave them up
to a debased mind to do what ought not to be done. 29 They were filled with all manner of unrighteousness, evil, covetousness, malice. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, maliciousness. They are gossips, 30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31 foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless. 32 Though they know God’s righteous decree that those who practice such things deserve to die, they not only do them but give approval to those who practice them.” (Rom 1:18–32 ESV)
26 For this reason
God gave them up
to dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature; 27 and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error.
God gave them up
in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, 25 because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen.
WICKED MAN DISHONORING GOD (1:18-23)
HOLY GOD "GIVING UP" ON WICKED MAN (1:24-32)
The Unrighteousness of the Gentiles (1:18-32)
EVEN THE "JUDGES" WILL BE JUDGED (2:1-11)
NOT HAVING A "WRITTEN" LAW DOES NOT EXEMPT FROM JUDGMENT (2:12-16)
The Unrighteousness of the Jews (2:1-3:8)
Despite advantages, Jews like Greeks are
Application and conclusion (3:19-20)
The Unrighteousness of All People (3:9-20)
3 What if some were unfaithful? Does their faithlessness nullify the faithfulness of God? 4 By no means! Let God be true though every one were a liar, as it is written, “That you may be justified in your words, and prevail when you are judged.”
“1 Therefore you have no excuse, O man, every one of you who judges. For in passing judgment on another you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, practice the very same things. 2 We know that the judgment of God rightly falls on those who practice such things. 3 Do you suppose, O man—you who judge those who practice such things and yet do them yourself—that you will escape the judgment of God? 4 Or do you presume on the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that God’s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? 5 But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed.
6 He will render to each one according to his works: 7 to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life; 8 but for those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, there will be wrath and fury. 9 There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, 10 but glory and honor and peace for everyone who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek. 11 For God shows no partiality.
12 For all who have sinned without the law will also perish without the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 13 For it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law who will be justified. 14 For when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law. 15 They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness, and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them 16 on that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus.
THE JEWS CONDEMNED BY THEIR OWN LAW (2:17-24)
THE JEWISH ADVANTAGE (3:1-2)
ANSWERS TO POSSIBLE OBJECTIONS (3:3-8)
THE LIMITATION OF CIRCUMCISION (2:25-29)
17 But if you call yourself a Jew and rely on the law and boast in God 18 and know his will and approve what is excellent, because you are instructed from the law; 19 and if you are sure that you yourself are a guide to the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, 20 an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of children, having in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth— 21 you then who teach others, do you not teach yourself? While you preach against stealing, do you steal? 22 You who say that one must not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 23 You who boast in the law dishonor God by breaking the law. 24 For, as it is written, “The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you.”
25 For circumcision indeed is of value if you obey the law, but if you break the law, your circumcision becomes uncircumcision. 26 So, if a man who is uncircumcised keeps the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? 27 Then he who is physically uncircumcised but keeps the law will condemn you who have the written code and circumcision but break the law. 28 For no one is a Jew who is merely one outwardly, nor is circumcision outward and physical. 29 But a Jew is one inwardly, and circumcision is a matter of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter. His praise is not from man but from God.
1 Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is the value of circumcision?
19 Now we know that whatever the law says it speaks to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world may be held accountable to God.
9 What then? Are we Jews any better off? No, not at all. For we have already charged that
are under sin,
10 as it is written:
no, not one
seeks for God. 12
have turned aside; together they have become worthless;
not even one
.” 13 “Their throat is an open grave; they use their tongues to deceive.” “The venom of asps is under their lips.” 14 “Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness.” 15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood; 16 in their paths are ruin and misery, 17 and the way of peace they have not known.” 18
“There is no fear of God before their eyes
Biblical proof (3:10-18)
Wrath is God's personal anger against sin. God’s anger is not selfish or arbitrary but represents his holy and loving response to human wickedness.
katecho (pres, act, part); to hold down (fast),
gnostos: known, intelligible (can be known)
phaneros (adj): visible, clear, evident
phaneroo (v., aor, act, ind): reveal
Wicked man stifling God's revealed truth
Wicked man despising the testimony of nature
Wicked man ungrateful and foolish
Wicked man given to idolatry
Giving them up to disgusting uncleanness
Giving them up to lesbianism and homosexuality
Giving them up to debased minds and all unrighteousness
his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.
although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools,
23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things.
No one should complain that God has left insufficient evidence of his existence and character; the fault is with those who reject the evidence.
Natural Revelation: God reveals Himself in His creation
“The heavens declare the glory of God, and the sky above proclaims his handiwork.” (Psa 19:1 ESV)
ginosko (aor, act, part: "after having known")- not in a saving sense, but they knew of his existence and his attributes.
The study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity
“The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, they do abominable deeds, there is none who does good.” (Psa 14:1 ESV)
allasso (aor, act, ind): to change or exchange one for another
In every instance the giving up to sin is a result of idolatry, the refusal to make God the center and circumference of all existence, so that in practice the creature is exalted over the Creator. Hence, all individual sins are a consequence of the
to prize and praise God as the giver of every good thing.
paradidomi (aor, act, ind)- to give over to the control of another
People do not generally sin in innocent ignorance, for they know God’s decree (at least in an instinctive way) that their evil deserves condemnation. Indeed, the evil goes further when people give approval and applaud others for their sin, probably because having others join in their sin makes them feel better about the evil course they have chosen.
Natural revelation is limited to what it says about God, and is therefore not unto salvation but unto condemnation. Natural Revelation says...
there is a God,
a God of power,
a God Who must be served and thanked
“16 Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 And Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-jonah! For
flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven
.” (Matt 16:16–17 ESV)
The penalty that is appropriate to the wrong committed.
dokimazo (aor, act, ind): to test (literally or figuratively); by implication, to approve: — allow, discern, examine
2 Much in every way. To begin with, the Jews were entrusted with the oracles of God.
Especially in having the
7 But if through my lie God’s truth abounds to his glory, why am I still being condemned as a sinner? 8 And why not do evil that good may come?—as some people slanderously charge us with saying. Their condemnation is just.
5 But if our unrighteousness serves to show the righteousness of God, what shall we say? That God is unrighteous to inflict wrath on us? (I speak in a human way.) 6 By no means! For then how could God judge the world?
Unbelieving Jews will not make the faithfulness of God
God is right to be angry, even if "unrighteousness"
His Own righteousness
Though sin might increase God's truth and give Him glory, people will still be
for their sins
20 For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since through the law comes knowledge of sin.
all, especially to whom it was given (3:19)
the knowledge of sin (3:20)
From Ps. 14:1–3; 53:1-3
no human being on his own seeks for God or does any good that merits salvation.
though human beings do perform some actions that conform externally to goodness, but these actions, prior to salvation, are...
still stained by evil
not done for God’s glory (Rom. 1:21)
not done from faith (14:23).
“Against you, you only, have I sinned and done what is evil in your sight,
so that you may be justified in your words and blameless in your judgment
.” (Psa 51:4 ESV)
21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it—
God’s Righteousness in the Death of Jesus (3:21-26)
29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 30 since God is one—who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith.
Righteousness by Faith for Jews and Gentiles (3:27-31)
23 But the words “it was counted to him” were not written for his sake alone, 24 but for ours also. It will be counted to us who believe in him who raised from the dead Jesus our Lord, 25 who was delivered up for our trespasses and raised for our justification.” (Rom 4:1–25 ESV)
Abraham as the Father of Jews and Gentiles.(4;1-25)
1. What two invisible attributes of God are revealed in nature? (1:20)
11. What comes through law? (20)
10. What advantage was there in being a Jew? (3:2)
9. Why were the Jews in need of salvation? (2:21-24)
8. Without a "written" Law, how did the Gentiles know the difference between right and wrong? (2:14,15)
7. How will God judge those who do not have a "written" law? (2:14-16)
6. What is the reward given to those who do good? To those who do evil? (2:9,10)
5. How does God try to lead one to repentance? (2:4)
4. Why is one who passes judgment without excuse? (2:1)
3. What one sin in particular is an indication that God's wrath toward man is in full force? (1:26,27)
2. How does God express His wrath? (1:24,26,28)
God's Righteousness in His Wrath Against Sinners (1:18-3:20)
eternal power & divine nature
"God gave them up"
homosexuality & lesbianism
because they practice the same things
through His kindness
good: glory and honor and peace; evil: tribulation and distress
by the law written in their hearts (their conscience)
by the secrets of men
by boasting in the law they dishonored God by breaking the law.
entrusted with the oracles of God
knowledge of sin
24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,
God's Righteousness Reveal (3:21-23)
from law, but
by the Law (21)
22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ
A righteousness through
in Jesus (22a)
For all who
for all have sinned (22b-23)
25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith.
God's Righteousness Explained (3:24-26)
through redemption in Christ (24)
Jesus' blood offered by God as a
through faith (25a)
God's righteousness toward the one who has faith in Jesus (25b-26)
27 Then what becomes of our boasting?
31 Do we then overthrow the law by this faith? By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law.
By a law of works? No, but by the law of faith. 28 For we hold that one is justified by faith apart from works of the law.
Boasting on man's part is excluded (3:27a)
It is excluded. By what kind of law?
For justification is based on faith, not deeds of law (27b-28)
God is God of Jews and Gentiles, for He justifies both by faith (29-30)
This does not void the need for law, but rather meets the require-ments of law (31)
How Abraham was Justified (4:1-5)
then he could
“1 What then shall we say was gained by Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh? 2 For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God.
3 For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.”
This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. 26 It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.
for all who believe. For there is no distinction: 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
in the period of salvation history inaugurated through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
it refers to the morally right character of God that is clearly shown in his saving action by which human beings may stand in the right before God as the divine judge.
means that it is not based on human obedience to the works of the law. Paul may also intend to say it is not based on the Sinai covenant.
The law reflects God's holy character and his purposes for created human beings.
“Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it in the hearing of the people. And they said, “All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient.”” (Ex 24:7 ESV)
“12 When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, 15 but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you. 16 And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me.Your throne shall be established forever.’” (Sam 7:12–16 ESV)
23 And I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd. 24 And I, the LORD, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them. I am the LORD; I have spoken.” (Ezek 34:23–24 ESV)
whether Jew or Gentile
No one can stake a claim to this righteousness based on his or her own obedience, for all people have sinned and fall short of what God demands
to entrust, commit (to trust), put in trust with.
persuasion, assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity.
but righteous by the divine Judge
Reaches back to the OT exodus and the blood of the Passover lamb (Exodus 12–15), by which the Lord liberated Israel from Egypt
(the wiping away of sin), but the word cannot be restricted to the wiping away of sins as it also refers to the satisfaction or appeasement of God’s wrath, turning it to favor.
In other words, how could God as the utterly Holy One tolerate human sin without inflicting full punishment on human beings immediately? Paul’s answer is that
God looked forward to the cross of Christ
where the full payment for the guilt of sin would be made, where Christ would die in the place of sinners.
of our being linked to the righteousness of Christ
Faith is the
, not the
““Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.” (Deut 6:4 ESV)
to be (render) entirely idle (useless),
: to take an inventory, impute.
The scriptures reveal it was by his faith in God (3)
5 And to the one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness,
4 Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift but as his due.
One who trusts in works, seeks God's
When one trusts in God to justify him, such faith is
for righteousness (5)
7 “Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; 8 blessed is the man against whom the Lord will not count his sin.”
The Testimony of David (4:6-8)
Even David spoke of God imputing righteousness
from works (6)
Blessed are those against whom God does not
6 just as David also speaks of the blessing of the one to whom God counts righteousness apart from works:
God's Promise was Granted Through Faith (4:13-25)
The promise to Abraham to be the
of the world given in view of his faith (13)
It was not given through
but in the light of
to assure that all who are of the same faith as Abraham might be
of the promise (14-17)
Abraham was Justified Before Circumcision (4:9-12)
His faith was counted for righteousness
he was circumcised (9-10)
Circumcision was a
of the righteousness he had while uncircumcised (11a)
Thus he became the
of all who have the same kind of faith, both circumcised and uncircumcised (11b-12)
9 Is this blessing then only for the circumcised, or also for the uncircumcised? For we say that faith was counted to Abraham as righteousness. 10 How then was it counted to him? Was it before or after he had been circumcised? It was not after, but before he was circumcised.
The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well, 12 and to make him the father of the circumcised who are not merely circumcised but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had before he was circumcised.
11 He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised.
The kind of
faith illustrated by Abraham (18-22)
Abraham's justification by faith
that we who believe in Him who raised Jesus From the dead
find justification (23-25)
13 For the promise to Abraham and his offspring that he would be heir of the world did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith.
14 For if it is the adherents of the law who are to be the heirs, faith is null and the promise is void. 15 For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression. 16 That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring—not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who shares the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 17 as it is written, “I have made you the father of many nations”—in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist.
18 In hope he believed against hope, that he should become the father of many nations, as he had been told, “So shall your offspring be.” 19 He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead (since he was about a hundred years old), or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah’s womb. 20 No unbelief made him waver concerning the promise of God, but he grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God, 21 fully convinced that God was able to do what he had promised. 22 That is why his faith was “counted to him as righteousness.”
Righteousness does not come to those who work for God, since all, like Abraham, are by God’s absolute standards ungodly
“1 After these things the word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision: “Fear not, Abram, I am your shield; your reward shall be very great.” 2 But Abram said, “O Lord GOD, what will you give me, for I continue childless, and the heir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?” 3 And Abram said, “Behold, you have given me no offspring, and a member of my household will be my heir.” 4 And behold, the word of the LORD came to him: “This man shall not be your heir; your very own son shall be your heir.” 5 And he brought him outside and said, “Look toward heaven, and number the stars, if you are able to number them.” Then he said to him, “So shall your offspring be.” 6 And he believed the LORD, and he counted it to him as righteousness.” (
“9 And God said to Abraham, “As for you, you shall keep my covenant, you and your offspring after you throughout their generations. 10 This is my covenant, which you shall keep, between me and you and your offspring after you: Every male among you shall be circumcised. 11” (
Circumcision was the sign and seal of Abraham’s righteousness that belonged to him by faith. In other words, circumcision documented and ratified the righteousness by faith that Abraham enjoyed before his circumcision.
faith means trusting in or relying on a promise of God’s work and not depending in any way on human performance.
defined as the violation of a revealed command, which means that the Jews, who had the written law, had even greater responsibility for their sin and as great a need to be saved from God’s wrath and justified by faith.
or “out of nothing.” Before God created the universe (Gen. 1:1), only God existed, nothing else. Paul uses this general truth to affirm the great power of the God whom Abraham trusted: Abraham believed in a God who could raise the dead and summon into existence what did not exist (e.g., new life in Sarah’s womb).
When God the Father raised Christ from the dead, it was a demonstration that he accepted Christ’s suffering and death as full payment for sin, and that the Father’s favor, no longer his wrath against sin, was directed toward Christ, and through Christ toward those who believe.
Therefore...God’s approval of Christ at the resurrection results in God’s approval also of all who are united to Christ, and in this way results in their “justification.”
WORDS TO PONDER
a payment for a
refers to being released from the
of sin by the blood of Christ"
term, indicating a verdict of '
in regards to sin, he who is justified is not held
for his sins"
"used to refer to an offering designed to
od offers the blood of Christ to appease for man's sins"
o 3:23) -- "a breaking of the law" (1 Jn 3:4)
impute - "
take into account or,
metaphorically, to put down to a person's account"
used in this chapter, the idea seems to be akin that of
e one is declared "not guilty" (see Romans 4:5-8)
The Saving Righteousness of God (3:21-4:25)
1. What came apart from law? (3:21)
5. How does man receive justification from God? (3:28)
4. How is God appeased for our sins? (3:25)
3. What is the gift of God's grace? (3:24)
2. Who has sinned? (3:23)
12. For whose sake was the example of Abraham's faith written? (4:23-24)
11. How did Abraham demonstrate his faith? (4:19-21)
10. Based upon what was the promise made to Abraham? (4:13)
9. How is Abraham the father of the uncircumcised who possess faith? (4:9-11)
8. How does David describe the righteousness which is imputed to man? (4:6-8)
7. How did Abraham attain righteousness? (4:3-5)
6. How does "justification by faith" relate to the principle of law? (3:31)
The righteousness of God (God's way of justifying sinful man)
All have sinned
Being justified through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus
Through the blood of Jesus Christ
It does not void the need for law, but rather supports the demand of law
By believing in God to justify the ungodly (and not in his own works)
In the sense that man's sins are not counted against him
By his being justified by faith prior to his circumcision
The righteousness of faith
By fathering Isaac
Those who believe that God raised Jesus from the dead
Hope in Christ's Triumph over Adam's Sin (5:12-21)
Adam and the Consequences of His Actions (5:12-14)
The Relationship of Law, Sin and Grace (5:20-21)
Law entered that sin might
but grace abounds
Assurance of Hope (5:1-11)
The Triumph of Grace over the Power of Sin (6:1-23)
THROUGH BAPTISM WE DIED TO SIN (6:1-7)
The Triumph of Grace over the power of the Law (7:1-6)
The Law and Sin (7:7-25)
Life in the Spirit (8:1-17)
FREEDOM FROM THE CONDEMNATION OF SIN (8:1-4)
FREEDOM FROM THE POWER OF SIN (5-17)
Assurance of Hope (8:18-39)
THE GLORY TO BE REVEALED IN US (8:18-25)
ALL THINGS WORKING TOGETHER FOR GOOD (8:28-30)
6 For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7 For one will scarcely die for a righteous person—though perhaps for a good person one would dare even to die— 8 but God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.
1 Therefore, since we have been justified by faith, we have peace
God through our Lord Jesus Christ. 2 Through him we have also obtained
by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we
in hope of the glory of God. 3 Not only that, but we rejoice in our
knowing that suffering produces
4 and endurance produces
and character produces
5 and hope does not put us to shame, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us.
Consequently, these things being so
dikaioo [aor, pass, part] - the Christian, through faith in Christ, has been justified and declared righteous by God, once for all.
not merely a subjective feeling but an objective reality.
The expression peace (Hb. shalom) had a much richer connotation than the English word does since it conveyed not merely the absence of conflict and turmoil but also the notion of positive blessing, especially in terms of a right relationship with God (e.g., Num. 6:24–26; cf. Ps. 29:11; Hag. 2:9, and also, as a result, the idea that “all is well” in one’s life). This may be manifested most clearly amid persecution and tribulation;
John 14:27 (ESV)
27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid.
How important is peace with God?
Have we lost the significance of fearing God?
echo [per, act, ind] - have; hold
right of passage
the secure position of the believer’s standing (as a blessing of justification)
refers to the promise that Christians will be glorified and perfected at the last day—a hope that results in joy.
not because trials are pleasant but because they produce a step-by-step transformation that makes believers more like Christ.
Followers of Christ have no reason to fear humiliation on the judgment day, for they now belong to God. Indeed, they know that they have received God’s love because the Holy Spirit poured his love into their hearts at conversion.
9 Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God.
God's Love in Our Hearts (5:5-8)
Salvation from God's Wrath (5:9-11)
by Christ's death while we were yet sinners (6-8)
11 More than that, we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.
10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, now that we are reconciled, shall we be saved by his life.
Through Jesus, just as we have been justified by His
Saved by His life, just as we were reconciled by His
The basis for us to rejoice (11)
In this and the following verses, Paul grounds the subjective experience of God’s love (v. 5) in the objective work of Christ on the cross. Weak here denotes lack of moral strength and is parallel to ungodly.
- opportune time - suitable for a particular purpose
5:7–8 On rare occasions, even a human being will die for a righteous (morally upright) person or for a good person (one who has done much good). God’s love, however,
belongs in an entirely different category from human love
, for Christ did not die for righteous people or those who have done good for others but for sinners, that is, for ungodly, unrighteous people living in willful rebellion against God. It is not just Christ’s love that was shown in his death but also God the Father’s love. While God’s righteousness and justice led to his plan of salvation through the death of Christ,
it was his love that motivated this plan.
[pres. act. ind.]- to stand with, commend, demonstrate
5:9 Christians are now justified (declared to be in the right before God) by virtue of Christ’s blood, that is, his blood poured out in his death on the cross. Therefore, they can be sure that they will be saved on the day of judgment from God’s wrath.
5:10 As in v. 9, Paul argues from the greater to the lesser, though here he speaks in terms of reconciliation (the language of friendship) rather than justification (a legal term). Since Christians are now reconciled to God through Christ’s death, they can be assured that they will be saved on the day to come (
here “saved,” Gk. sōzō, includes not only justification at the start of the Christian life but also completed sanctification, glorification, freedom from final condemnation, and future rewards
). But here the salvation is based on his life. The reference is to Christ’s resurrection, showing that both the death and resurrection of Christ are necessary for salvation (see 4:25).
[aor, pass, ind] - to bring into friendship
5:11 Christians go beyond avoiding God’s wrath and actually rejoice in the same God who would pour out wrath on them (v. 9) were it not for Christ.
12 Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin,
13 for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.
and so death spread to all men because all sinned—
Through Adam, sin entered the world, and
death as a consequence
Thus death spread,
for all sinned
From the time of Adam to Moses,
Adam and Christ Compared (5:15-19)
15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if
through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ
for many. 16 And the free gift is not like the result of that one man’s sin. For the
following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free
following many trespasses brought justification. 17 For if, because of one man’s trespass,
reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ. 18 Therefore, as one trespass led to
for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to
and life for all men. 19 For as by the one man’s
the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s
the many will be made righteous.
20 Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more,
21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
(Pelagius: 400 AD)- Each soul is created by God at conception and therefore is perfect. Adam’s sin only affected Adam himself. Man therefore is not born depraved but becomes so only when he sins.
Arminian (semi-Pelagian) Theory (Arminius: 16th century; Calvin’s counterpart)
– Man does not stand condemned in Adam but receives a disability from Adam’s fall which God must overcome to ensure eternal life. All men are capable of cooperating with God to overcome this inability.
Federal Headship Theory
– Adam was the appointed representative of the whole race. When Adam fell, his sin was imputed to the whole race.
Natural or Seminal Headship
– when Adam sinned he became a sinner and therefore those descending from him are also tainted by his sin nature; “Like produces like”.
Sinfulness as a result of our "origin", which marks everyone from birth, in the form of a heart inclined toward sin, prior to any actual sins; this inner sinfulness is the root and source of all actual sins; it is transmitted to us from Adam, our first representative before God. Therefore, we are not sinners because we sin, but we sin because we are sinners, born with a nature enslaved to sin.
Psalm 51:5 (ESV)
5 Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.
Paul does not mean that people were guiltless without the law, but it was not technically reckoned as sin before the time of the law.
The Actions of One Man
reign of death
gift of righteousness
gift of justification
reign of life
1 What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound? 2 By no means! How can we who died to sin still live in it?
5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6 We know that our old self was crucified with him in order that the body of sin might be brought to nothing, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. 7 For one who has died has been set free from sin.
3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4 We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.
DEAD TO SIN, ALIVE TO GOD (6:8-14)
8 Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. 9 We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. 10 For the death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God.
THE MOTIVATION FOR SERVING GOD (6:19-23)
19 I am speaking in human terms, because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification.
WE BECOME SLAVES TO WHOM WE OBEY (6:15-18)
15 What then? Are we to sin because we are not under law but under grace? By no means! 16 Do you not know that if you present yourselves to anyone as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, either of sin, which leads to death, or of obedience, which leads to righteousness?
13 Do not present your members to sin as instruments for unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and your members to God as instruments for righteousness. 14 For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace.
11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. 12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, to make you obey its passions.
17 But thanks be to God, that you who were once slaves of sin have become obedient from the heart to the standard of teaching to which you were committed, 18 and, having been set free from sin, have become slaves of righteousness.
23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
22 But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the fruit you get leads to sanctification and its end, eternal life.
20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 21 But what fruit were you getting at that time from the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death.
Shall we sin, that grace may abound? No, we
In baptism we were
into Christ's death (3-4a)
We should walk in newness of life, having been united together in the
of His death,
with Him, no longer
of sin, but freed from sin (4b-7)
with Christ, we may
with Him over Whom death has no
Alive to God, we should not let sin
in our bodies
But rather present our bodies as
for we are under grace
Either of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness
to God's Word, those who were slaves of sin become slaves of righteousness
Serving righteousness produces
Serving sin produces
Serving God produces the
of holiness, and in the end, eternal life
The wages of sin is death, but God gives the
of eternal life in Christ Jesus
—to dip or immerse (baptizo)
—to be identified with
--our symbol of this identification (sacrament)
-–our identification with Christ (salvation)
to remain or continue intentionally (t-pre, v-act, m-sub)
it's not possible, it can't exist, do not create the thought
In other words, justification by faith is not simply a legal matter between me and God; it is a living relationship. It is “a justification which brings life” (Rom. 5:18, literal translation). I am in Christ and identified with Him. Therefore, whatever happened to Christ has happened to me. When He died, I died. When He arose, I arose in Him. I am now seated with Him in the heavenlies! (see Eph. 2:1–10; Col. 3:1–3) Because of this living union with Christ, the believer has a totally new relationship to sin.
the grammar seems to indicate that the more you count ourselves dead to sin, the less sin will reign in your mortal bodies!
logizomai (t-pre, v-act, m-imp) - to reckon, to take into account
“and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,” (1 Corinthians 10:2, ESV)
“For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.” (1 Corinthians 12:13, ESV)
(lit., “old man,” meaning who we were in Adam)
katargeo (t-aor, v-pas, m-sub) - to use up, exhaust, make powerless
Paul does not argue that Christians do not sin at all (a view called sinless perfection); instead, the tyranny, domination, and rule of sin have been defeated for them. This means that the normal pattern of life for Christians should be progressive growth in sanctification, [8 highlights] resulting in ever greater maturity and conformity to God’s moral law in thought and action.
“If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is your life appears, then you also will appear with him in glory.” (Colossians 3:1–4, ESV)
paristemi (t-pre, v-act, m-imp) - to place beside for one's disposal
“I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.” (Romans 12:1, ESV)
Where does sin in a Christian's life come from?
Does a Christian have two natures?
What was crucified with Christ?
...dead to the pervasive love for and ruling power of sin. Christians must realize that the mastery of sin has been broken in their lives...
1 Or do you not know, brothers—for I am speaking to those who know the law—that the law is binding on a person only as long as he lives?
4 Likewise, my brothers, you also have died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead, in order that we may bear fruit for God.
5 For while we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death. 6 But now we are released from the law, having died to that which held us captive, so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit and not in the old way of the written code.
2 For a married woman is bound by law to her husband while he lives, but if her husband dies she is released from the law of marriage. 3 Accordingly, she will be called an adulteress if she lives with another man while her husband is alive. But if her husband dies, she is free from that law, and if she marries another man she is not an adulteress.
PARALLEL TO BEING RELEASED FROM MARRIAGE (7:1-3)
THEY HAVE DIED TO THE LAW (7:4-6)
Law has dominion over those who live
As illustrated by a woman who is married to a man
So they can be
So they can serve in
of the Spirit, far superior to serving in the
of the letter
7 What then shall we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. For I would not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, “You shall not covet.”
14 For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am of the flesh, sold under sin.
THE LAW IS HOLY AND JUST AND GOOD (7:7-12)
THE LAW CANNOT SAVE ONE FROM SIN (7:13-25)
The problem is not
13 Did that which is good, then, bring death to me? By no means! It was sin, producing death in me through what is good, in order that sin might be shown to be sin, and through the commandment might become sinful beyond measure.
The Law is
but man is
and sold under sin
24 Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death? 25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin.
15 For I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. 16 Now if I do what I do not want, I agree with the law, that it is good. 17 So now it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me. 18 For I know that nothing good dwells in me, that is, in my flesh. For I have the desire to do what is right, but not the ability to carry it out. 19 For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing. 20 Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me. 21 So I find it to be a law that when I want to do right, evil lies close at hand. 22 For I delight in the law of God, in my inner being, 23 but I see in my members another law waging war against the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members.
Though one may desire good and hate evil, one is still
comes only from God, through Jesus Christ
8 But sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of covetousness. For apart from the law, sin lies dead. 9 I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin came alive and I died. 10 The very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me. 11 For sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. 12 So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good.
The Law is not sin, but rather makes
But sin takes
by the commandment to lead one to death
Since the relation of the Christian to the Christ is very close, release from the law must mean union with Christ, the Risen One.
“For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God.” (Colossians 3:3, ESV)
Paul continues his discussion of the fruits of justification. Among them he had already considered
(chapter 5) and
(chapter 6). This time he adds
namely, from bondage to law, the glorious liberty enjoyed by the children of God.
...death dissolves the legal bond; i.e., the bondage to law. The marriage bond is dissolved by the death of one of the marriage partners (in this case the husband); the legal bond is broken by the believers’ involvement in Christ’s death; in other words, by the believers’ death.
Is Paul describing the life of a believer or unbeliever? Why or why not?
If a believer, is Paul describing a mature or carnal believer? Why or why not?
Intro to this section...
1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
2 For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death.
to those in Christ, made possible by the law of the Spirit of life
3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh,
4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.
not attained by the Law, but by the death of Christ
14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, “Abba! Father!”
16 The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God,
17 and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him.
5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit.
6 For to set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.
7 For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God’s law; indeed, it cannot.
8 Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
9 You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.
10 But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.
12 So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.
13 For if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.
To those who
on the things of the Spirit, not the flesh, pleasing God
To those who have the
To those who by the Spirit put to
the deeds of the body
To those thus led, who are the
and joint heirs with Christ
THE HELP OF THE HOLY SPIRIT (8:26-27)
GOD'S LOVE TOWARD HIS ELECT (8:31-39)
God, who spared not His own Son, is
on our side
18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us.
23 And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.
24 For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees?
25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.
19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God.
20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope
21 that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now.
don't even compare
The whole creation eagerly
for the revealing and glorious liberty of the children of God
We also eagerly wait with
for this hope
26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words.
Helps in our
as we pray
27 And he who searches hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God.
for us as we pray
28 And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose.
29 For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.
30 And those whom he predestined he also called, and those whom he called he also justified, and those whom he justified he also glorified.
For those who
according to His
For such, whom God
He will carry out His
purpose (The Salvation Chain)
31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?
32 He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, how will he not also with him graciously give us all things?
33 Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.
35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword?
36 As it is written, “For your sake we are being killed all the day long; we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered.”
37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us.
38 For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers,
39 nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
34 Who is to condemn? Christ Jesus is the one who died—more than that, who was raised—who is at the right hand of God, who indeed is interceding for us.
Christ, who died for us, now
for us at God's right hand
Through such love we are more than
over all things
proginosko - to know beforehand - always used of personal endearment, not of activities.
Focuses at the
of God's redemption plan.
Focuses at the
of God's redemption plan.
Paul now, by a very logical transition, enters into the realm of time. The apostle refers, of course, to the
Believers will share in Christ’s glory. Nothing can be greater glory than that which is bestowed upon Christ’s followers because of their intimate union with Christ.
“And to Adam he said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, ‘You shall not eat of it,’ cursed is the ground because of you; in pain you shall eat of it all the days of your life; thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you; and you shall eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.”” (Genesis 3:17–19, ESV)
The Work of God
Satan, their enemies, or even their own consciences may bring charges against God’s elect, but those who have come to faith in Christ will never be found guilty, for God declares them to be right before all the world at the divine tribunal.
Who is to condemn?
Christ died for them and paid the full penalty for their sin
he was raised, showing that his death was effective
he now is seated triumphantly at God’s right hand (Ps. 110:1)
he intercedes for his people on the basis of his shed blood
The quotation from Ps. 44:22 shows that the difficulties listed in Rom. 8:35 do strike Christians. They are not exempted from suffering or even from being killed.
Christians are more than conquerors, because God turns everything—even suffering and death—into good.
Paul answers the question he raised in v. 35 with absolute certainty that nothing can ever sever God’s people from his love … in Christ. Rulers and powers here likely refer to angelic and demonic authorities.
Paul's Concern for His Brethren of Israel (9:1-5)
HIS GREAT CONCERN (9:1-3)
FOR ISRAEL, RECIPIENTS OF MANY BLESSINGS (9:4-5)
The True Children Of God (9:6-29)
ARE CHILDREN OF PROMISE, NOT CHILDREN OF FLESH (9:6-13)
ARE OF BOTH THE JEWS AND THE GENTILES (9:24-29)
The Basis Of God's Choice: Faith vs. No Faith (9:30-33)
FOR THE GENTILES (9:30)
FOR ISRAEL (9:31-33)
Israel's Refusal of God's Righteousness (10:1-15)
PAUL'S EXPRESSION OF CONCERN FOR ISRAEL (10:1-4)
RIGHTEOUSNESS OF THE LAW vs. RIGHTEOUSNESS BY FAITH IN CHRIST (10:5-15)
Paul's Hymn of Praise to God (11:33-36)
The Hardening of Israel to Benefit Israel (11:11-32)
THE JEWISH STUMBLING AND GENTILE CONNECTION (11:11-16)
THE HARDENING AND BLESSING OF ISRAEL (11:25-32)
God Has Not Totally Rejected Israel (11:1-10)
EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THIS (11:1-6)
BUT MANY HAVE BEEN HARDENED (11:7-10)
Israel's Neglect of the Gospel (10:16-21)
NOT ALL OBEYED THE GOSPEL (10:16-18)
THEIR NEGLECT, AND THE GENTILES RECEPTION, FORESEEN BY SCRIPTURES (10:19-21)
1 I am speaking the truth in Christ—I am not lying; my conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit—
2 that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart.
3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh.
His conscience and the Holy Spirit bear witness to his great
He would even be willing to be
from Christ for their sakes
The principle of electing mercy applied indiscriminately to the mass of guilty Jews and Gentiles, may have caused two objections might arise:
Purpose of this Section
It might further be supposed that the apostle had ceased to feel an interest in his countrymen, and had become the exclusive advocate of the Gentiles.
that the whole argument involved a departure from the promises made to the Jewish nation.
that it was unjust;
4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the
the giving of the
5 To them belong the
and from their race, according to the flesh, is the
who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen.
Of whom are the
and of course, Christ Himself
ARE THE OBJECTS OF GOD'S MERCY (9:14-23)
6 But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel,
They are not all Israel who have
with Isaac and Ishmael, Jacob and Esau
According to God's
whose choice was not based upon works
19 You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?”
20 But who are you, O man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?”
21 Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use?
22 What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction,
23 in order to make known the riches of his glory for vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory—
14 What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God’s part? By no means!
15 For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”
16 So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy.
17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”
18 So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.
through His Mercy
Just as Pharaoh was the object of His
the objects of His mercy and His wrath
24 even us whom he has called, not from the Jews only but also from the Gentiles?
25 As indeed he says in Hosea, “Those who were not my people I will call ‘my people,’ and her who was not beloved I will call ‘beloved.’ ”
26 “And in the very place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ there they will be called ‘sons of the living God.’ ”
27 And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will be saved,
28 for the Lord will carry out his sentence upon the earth fully and without delay.”
29 And as Isaiah predicted, “If the Lord of hosts had not left us offspring, we would have been like Sodom and become like Gomorrah.”
Not of Jews
as foretold by Hosea
But only a
of Israel, as foretold by Isaiah
30 What shall we say, then? That Gentiles who did not pursue righteousness have attained it, that is, a righteousness that is by faith;
31 but that Israel who pursued a law that would lead to righteousness did not succeed in reaching that law.
32 Why? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were based on works. They have stumbled over the stumbling stone,
Though they had not
been looking for it
Yet many have
righteousness through faith
33 as it is written, “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense; and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame.”
for the Law, did not have the
over Christ, as foretold by Isaiah
Even though many Jews have failed to believe, God’s promise to them has not failed, for there was never a promise that every Jewish person would be saved.
7 and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.”
8 This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring.
9 For this is what the promise said: “About this time next year I will return, and Sarah shall have a son.”
10 And not only so, but also when Rebekah had conceived children by one man, our forefather Isaac,
11 though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad—in order that God’s purpose of election might continue, not because of works but because of him who calls—
12 she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”
13 As it is written, “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”
““I have loved you,” says the LORD. But you say, “How have you loved us?” “Is not Esau Jacob’s brother?” declares the LORD. “Yet I have loved Jacob but Esau I have hated. I have laid waste his hill country and left his heritage to jackals of the desert.”” (Malachi 1:2–3, ESV)
1 Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved.
2 For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge.
3 For, being ignorant of the righteousness of God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God’s righteousness.
4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.
That Israel be saved, for they have
Through ignorance, they seek to save themselves by the
and do not submit to God's righteousness in Christ which brings an
to the Law
6 But the righteousness based on faith says, “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ down)
7 “or ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’ ” (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).
8 But what does it say? “The word is near you, in your
and in your
(that is, the word of faith that we proclaim);
9 because, if you
with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and
in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.
10 For with the heart one
and is justified, and with the mouth one
and is saved.
11 For the Scripture says, “Everyone who
in him will not be put to shame.”
12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who
13 For “everyone who
on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
14 How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without someone
15 And how are they to
unless they are sent? As it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the good news!”
5 For Moses writes about the righteousness that is based on the law, that the person who does the commandments shall live by them.
Righteousness of the Law as defined by
Righteousness by faith as defined by
16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed what he has heard from us?”
17 So faith comes from hearing, and hearing through the word of Christ.
18 But I ask, have they not heard? Indeed they have, for “Their voice has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.”
Even though they had
19 But I ask, did Israel not understand? First Moses says, “I will make you jealous of those who are not a nation; with a foolish nation I will make you angry.”
20 Then Isaiah is so bold as to say, “I have been found by those who did not seek me; I have shown myself to those who did not ask for me.”
21 But of Israel he says, “All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and contrary people.”
As spoken by
As spoken by
2 God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew. Do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he appeals to God against Israel?
3 “Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have demolished your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life.”
4 But what is God’s reply to him? “I have kept for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.”
1 I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! For I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin.
5 So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace.
6 But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace.
There is a
just as in the days of Elijah
A remnant according to
7 What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened,
8 as it is written, “God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that would not see and ears that would not hear, down to this very day.”
9 And David says, “Let their table become a snare and a trap, a stumbling block and a retribution for them;
10 let their eyes be darkened so that they cannot see, and bend their backs forever.”
An "elect" have been
the rest were
This "hardening" foretold by
WORDS OF WARNING AGAINST GENTILE CONCEIT (11:17-24)
11 So I ask, did they stumble in order that they might fall? By no means! Rather through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous.
12 Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!
13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry
14 in order somehow to make my fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them.
15 For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?
16 If the dough offered as firstfruits is holy, so is the whole lump, and if the root is holy, so are the branches.
Salvation to the Gentiles an
for the Jews to repent
This is one reason why Paul
his ministry to the Gentiles
17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, although a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing root of the olive tree,
18 do not be arrogant toward the branches. If you are, remember it is not you who support the root, but the root that supports you.
19 Then you will say, “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.”
20 That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but fear.
21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you.
22 Note then the kindness and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God’s kindness to you, provided you continue in his kindness. Otherwise you too will be cut off.
23 And even they, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again.
24 For if you were cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, the natural branches, be grafted back into their own olive tree.
Gentiles are but "
" grafted in to the root
To replace "
", true, but can just as easily be displaced and replaced
25 Lest you be wise in your own sight, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.
29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.
30 For just as you were at one time disobedient to God but now have received mercy because of their disobedience,
31 so they too have now been disobedient in order that by the mercy shown to you they also may now receive mercy.
32 For God has consigned all to disobedience, that he may have mercy on all.
28 As regards the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.
26 And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it is written, “The Deliverer will come from Zion, he will banish ungodliness from Jacob”;
27 “and this will be my covenant with them when I take away their sins.”
Hardening is partial, until the
of the Gentiles come in
In this way
Israel will be saved
They may be
of the gospel, but they are
And they may obtain
just as the Gentiles did
33 Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways!
34 “For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor?”
35 “Or who has given a gift to him that he might be repaid?”
him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen.
the end to which all things relate, the aim, purpose
(zelos) - excitement of mind, ardor, fervor of spirit
(epignosis) - precise and correct knowledge
Paul quotes Lev. 18:5 regarding the righteousness that is based on the law, to show that those who keep the law will attain life. But as Paul has already shown, life will not come in this way since all violate the law
““For this commandment that I command you today is not too hard for you, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that you should say, ‘Who will ascend to heaven for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ Neither is it beyond the sea, that you should say, ‘Who will go over the sea for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ But the word is very near you. It is in your mouth and in your heart, so that you can do it.” (Deuteronomy 30:11–14, ESV)
Used by Jews to declare something difficult to understand...We world say, “It’s not Rocket Science...”...No further investigation needed...
(homologeo) - to say the same thing as another, i.e. to agree with, assent
(pisteuo) - to entrust a thing to one
Faith Assumes Knowledge
We can not embrace things we do not know
We can not respond to a message about which we are ignorant
A Living Faith= Knowledge+Assent+Trust
“You believe that God is one; you do well. Even the demons believe—and shudder!” (James 2:19, ESV)
Ok let's test this formula...
Call from Belief
Belief from Hearing
Hearing from Preaching
Preaching from Being Sent
Not all who hear believe, but all who believe must hear
God’s plan from the beginning was that Jew and Gentile alike would believe the same message
1 Kings 19:1-18
The doctrine of the salvation of the
is taught throughout Scripture:
the time of
the many perished, the few were saved (Gen. 6:1–8; Luke 17:26, 27; 1 Peter 3:20).
the days of
(Gen. 19:29; Luke 17:28, 29).
though he did not realize that it amounted to no less than seven thousand.
What Israel as a nation was constantly seeking but was not obtaining was right standing with God, righteousness.
The composite citation from Isa. 29:10 and Deut. 29:4 clarifies that God has hardened Israel so that they would not see or hear.
Israel’s hardening is not the final word. God planned salvation history so that Israel’s trespass would open salvation for the Gentiles, and the Jews in turn would be provoked to jealousy when they see Gentiles being saved and enjoying a relationship with God.
fulfillment of God’s saving promises to ethnic Israel
As an apostle, Paul had a special calling and commission to preach the good news to the Gentiles. But he uses his ministry to the Gentiles also to benefit the Jews, for he hopes that the more Gentiles come to salvation, the more this will provoke the Jews to jealousy, so that many will be saved.
Introduction to Romans 11
1. Is God done with Israel as a nation?
2. Has the church replaced Israel? (Replacement theology or supersessionism)
This section should answer the following questions...
Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob)
The Faithful Israel of God
“He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well,” (Romans 4:11, ESV)
Gentile believers are warned against arrogance,
the Jews were removed because they failed to believe and the Gentiles remain only because of their continued trust.
this should provoke fear and awe (Gk. phobeō, “to be afraid, have profound respect and reverence, have fear of offending”),
Gentiles might be tempted with pride because God removed the Jewish branches from the olive tree and grafted them in instead.
it is God’s saving promises (the root), not their own goodness, that saved them.
“You, being a Gentile, belong by nature to the realm of unbelief."
This must not be understood in the sense that God will supply the kindness, man the faith. Salvation is ever God’s gift. It is never a 50–50 affair. From start to finish it is the work of God. But this does not remove human responsibility. God does not exercise faith for man or in his place. It is and remains man who reposes his trust in God, but
it is God who both imparts this faith to him and enables him to use it.
“Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, so now, not only as in my presence but much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling, for it is God who works in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure.” (Philippians 2:12–13, ESV)
Absolute, unconditional promises, guaranteeing salvation to either Gentiles or Jews, no matter how they live exist only in people’s imaginations, not in Scripture
Israel’s rejection is not absolute and unqualified, nor necessarily final. It is partial
Carnal Israel stumbles and is rejected because of its unbelief
The gospel is proclaimed to the Gentiles. The elect Gentiles are saved
God uses this salvation of Gentiles in order to arouse the envy of the Jews
The Jewish remnant accepts Christ, in accordance with God’s eternal plan.
without regret; feeling no remorse
An Appeal To Consecration (12:1-2)
BE TRANSFORMED, NOT CONFORMED TO THE WORLD (12:2)
Serve God As Members Of One Body (12:3-8)
WITH HUMILITY (3)
WITH ZEAL, NO MATTER WHAT OUR GIFTS (12:6-8)
WITH APPRECIATION FOR DIVERSITY (12:4-5)
Miscellaneous Exhortations (12:9-21)
AS CHRISTIANS (12:9-16)
RESPONDING TO EVIL (12:17-21)
Exhortations to Love and Moral Purity (13:8-14)
CONCERNING MORAL PURITY (13:11-14)
THE VALUE OF LOVE (13:8-10)
Concluding Admonitions to the Strong Brethren (15:1-13)
BEAR WITH THE SCRUPLES OF THE WEAK (15:1-6)
PAUL'S PRAYER FOR THEM (15:13)
RECEIVE ONE ANOTHER (15:7-12)
Further Admonitions to Strong Brethren (14:14-23)
PURSUE THINGS WHICH MAKE FOR PEACE (14:19-23)
DO NOT DESTROY A BROTHER FOR WHOM CHRIST DIED (14:14-18)
Responsibilities To The Government (13:1-7)
BE IN SUBJECTION (13:1-5)
FULFILL WHAT IS DUE (13:6-7)
Admonitions to Strong and Weak Brethren (14:1-13)
HOW TO TREAT EACH OTHER (14:1-4)
DO NOT JUDGE ONE ANOTHER (14:10-13)
HOW TO BE TRUE TO THE LORD IN THESE MATTERS (14:5-9)
PRESENT YOUR BODIES AS LIVING SACRIFICES (12:1)
I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God,
In view of the
Which is your
which is your spiritual worship.
that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.
Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind,
To prove the
will of God
For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think with sober judgment,
4 For as in one body we have many members, and the members do not all have the same function,
6 Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: if prophecy, in proportion to our faith;
7 if service, in our serving; the one who teaches, in his teaching;
8 the one who exhorts, in his exhortation; the one who contributes, in generosity; the one who leads, with zeal; the one who does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.
each according to the measure of faith that God has assigned.
we are comes from God
5 so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another.
Members do not have the same
But we are
members of one another
To understand God’s righteousness in everyday life. Since the gift of God’s saving righteousness leads to a new life, Paul exhorts us to work out the practical implications of God’s saving mercy.
OBJECTIVES IN STUDYING THIS SECTION
Introduction to Romans 12
“Bless those who persecute you” (12:14–21)
What Should Be the Attitude of the Justified Believer Toward Outsiders, Including Enemies
“Be devoted to one another in brotherly love” (12:9–13)
“We who are many, are one body in Christ” (12:3–8)
What Should Be the Attitude of the Justified Believer Toward Fellow-Christians
“Offer yourselves as sacrifices, living, holy, and well-pleasing to God” (12:1, 2)
What Should Be the Attitude of the Justified Believer Toward God
points back to the entire argument from 1:18–11:36
Christians are to give themselves entirely to God because of his saving grace
parastesai [aor, act, inf] - cause to be in place
(soma) refers to Christians as whole persons, for both body and soul belong to God
logikos: reasonable, thoughtful, logical
(suschematizo) [Pre-Mid-Imp]- to conform one’s self (i.e. one’s mind and character) to another’s pattern, (fashion one’s self according to)
(metamorphoo) [Pre-Pas-Imp] - to change into another form
“And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another. For this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.” (2 Corinthians 3:18, ESV)
(anakainosis) -a renewal, renovation, act of reestablishing something in a like-new and often improved manner.
“Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things.” (Philippians 4:8, ESV)
dokimazo: to test, to approve
(un huperphroneo ) not to over-estimate himself, or to think more of himself than he ought to...
(eis sophroneo) - to think so as to act soberly or wisely
. Abhor what is
; hold fast to what is
17 Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all.
anypokritos: without hypocrisy
philadelphia: love of brothers; brotherly love
philostorgos: loving dearly
proēgeomai: to esteem more highly
timē: value; honor, reverence; honorarium, compensation
spoudē: excited fervor to do something or accomplish some end
joys and sorrows
in our relations together
The coals of fire probably symbolizes the burning pangs of shame and contrition resulting from the unexpected kindness received. The wronged person’s magnanimous behavior, returning good for evil, has this effect.
20 To the contrary, “if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.”
21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
19 Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.”
18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all.
with evil, be
of what is good
be at peace
Give place to the
by responding with
16 Live in harmony with one another. Do not be haughty, but associate with the lowly. Never be wise in your own sight.
15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep.
those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them.
to the needs of the saints and seek to show hospitality.
in hope, be
in tribulation, be constant in prayer.
11 Do not be slothful in zeal, be
one another with brotherly affection. Outdo one another in showing
1 Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God.
2 Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.
5 Therefore one must be in subjection, not only to avoid God’s wrath but also for the sake of conscience.
3 For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive his approval,
4 for he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.
For governing authorities are
For governing authorities are God's
to avenge evil
To avoid wrath and maintain good
respect to whom respect is owed, honor to whom honor is owed.
6 For because of this you also pay taxes, for the authorities are ministers of God, attending to this very thing.
7 Pay to all what is owed to them: taxes to whom taxes are owed, revenue to whom revenue is owed,
Introduction to this section...
Why government? (Gen. 9:1-8)
What is a Christian's responsibility to government?
Is civil disobedience ever justified in scripture?
“He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding;” (Daniel 2:21, ESV)
hypotassō: to arrange under
tassō: to arrange or designate
diakonos: deacon, agent
machaira: sword used to kill
Those in authority, in the final analysis, were appointed by God and received their authority from God. Under normal conditions and circumstances the ruler, in the sphere of civil government, represents the
with respect to the people’s conduct as citizens.
"Now a Christian’s political conduct must not be motivated or regulated only by fear of incurring God’s wrath. On the contrary, subjecting oneself to the divinely authorized civil authority has something to do with the believer’s relation to God. The Christian knows that it is God’s will that he subject himself to the authorities which God, in his providence, has placed over him for his (the subject’s) good. Accordingly, failure to subject himself results in the accusing voice of conscience. Therefore, for both of these reasons, namely, to avoid God’s wrath and to satisfy his conscience, one should voluntarily subject himself to the ruling authority."
leitourgos: servants of God with religious implications
"Is not the implication this, that, in the final analysis, the governing authorities owe their authority not to people but to God to whom they are responsible for all their actions; and that the citizens should so regard them; and, when these officials faithfully carry out their duty, even that of collecting taxes, should so honor them?"
“First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, inter-cessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people,
for kings and all who are in high positions
, that we may lead a peaceful and quiet life, godly and dignified in every way.” (1 Timothy 2:1–2, ESV)
“Be subject for the Lord’s sake to every human institution, whether it be to the emperor as supreme, or to governors as sent by him to punish those who do evil and to praise those who do good. For this is the will of God, that by doing good you should put to silence the ignorance of foolish people.” (1 Peter 2:13–15, ESV)
“But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.” (1 Peter 2:9, ESV)
What about civil disobedience? Is it ever right to disobey the governing authorities?
"God ordained and instituted civil government for the welfare of society, to promote and to protect the good and restrain and punish the evil. It is the duty of Christians to pray for those in authority, to render due loyalty, respect, and obedience to them, and to pay taxes and customs demanded of them.
Where demands of civil law militate against the supreme and higher law of God, Christians should obey God rather than man
Article 23 - Civil Government
“But Peter and John answered them, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, you must judge,” (Acts 4:19, ESV)
“But Peter and the apostles answered, “We must obey God rather than men.” (Acts 5:29, ESV)
for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.
9 For the commandments, “You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,” and any other commandment, are summed up in this word: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”
10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
8 Owe no one anything, except to love each other,
no one anything but love
For love does no harm, and
13 Let us walk properly as in the daytime, not in orgies and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and sensuality, not in quarreling and jealousy.
14 But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to gratify its desires.
11 Besides this you know the time, that the hour has come for you to wake from sleep. For salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed.
12 The night is far gone; the day is at hand. So then let us cast off the works of darkness and put on the armor of light.
Time is short; we need to
works of darkness,
the armor of light
Walk properly by
on Jesus, making no
to fulfill fleshly lusts
(fulfilling the law)
It is clear that the apostle is making an appeal to the Lord’s Return, and is using it as an incentive to holy living...
“The end of all things is at hand; therefore be self-controlled and sober-minded for the sake of your prayers. Above all, keep loving one another earnestly, since love covers a multitude of sins. Show hospitality to one another without grumbling. As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God’s varied grace: whoever speaks, as one who speaks oracles of God; whoever serves, as one who serves by the strength that God supplies—in order that in everything God may be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” (1 Peter 4:7–11, ESV)
and let not the one who abstains pass judgment on the one who eats, for God has welcomed him.
4 Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand.
1 As for the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions.
2 One person believes he may eat anything, while the weak person eats only vegetables.
3 Let not the one who eats despise the one who abstains,
The strong are to
The weak are not to
6 The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God.
7 For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself.
8 For if we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord. So then, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord’s.
9 For to this end Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living.
5 One person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind.
in your own mind
Do what you do as
to the Lord
but rather decide never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother.
10 Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God;
11 for it is written, “As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.”
12 So then each of us will give an account of himself to God.
13 Therefore let us not pass judgment on one another any longer,
Christ is to be our
Our concern should be not to put
in a brother's way
Introduction to this section (14:1-15:13)...
14 I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean in itself, but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean.
15 For if your brother is grieved by what you eat, you are no longer walking in love. By what you eat, do not destroy the one for whom Christ died.
16 So do not let what you regard as good be spoken of as evil.
17 For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking but of righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.
18 Whoever thus serves Christ is acceptable to God and approved by men.
19 So then let us pursue what makes for peace and for mutual upbuilding.
20 Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. Everything is indeed clean, but it is wrong for anyone to make another stumble by what he eats.
21 It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble.
22 The faith that you have, keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who has no reason to pass judgment on himself for what he approves.
23 But whoever has doubts is condemned if he eats, because the eating is not from faith. For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin.
1 We who are strong have an obligation to bear with the failings of the weak, and not to please ourselves.
2 Let each of us please his neighbor for his good, to build him up.
3 For Christ did not please himself, but as it is written, “The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me.”
4 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope.
5 May the God of endurance and encouragement grant you to live in such harmony with one another, in accord with Christ Jesus,
6 that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
7 Therefore welcome one another as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory of God.
8 For I tell you that Christ became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs,
9 and in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, “Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing to your name.”
10 And again it is said, “Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.”
11 And again, “Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples extol him.”
12 And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.”
13 May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.
Paul is, as it were, saying, “Having laid aside the garment of sin, now deck yourselves more and more with the robe of Christ’s righteousness,..." Even though believers have new life, they still must constantly renounce the flesh and refuse to gratify its desires.
between the strong and weak...
The members of each group must be regarded as genuine believers (Rom. 14:1–4, 6, 10, 13).
Each group was critical of the other (14:3, 4, 13).
Each group will have to give an account of itself to the Lord (14:11).
Paul addresses a specific dispute, probably over whether Christians need to abide by Jewish food laws. Paul clearly sides theologically with the “strong” (who did not feel compelled to follow those laws), but he encourages them not to despise or scandalize the “weak.”
between the strong and weak...
The strong believed that they were permitted to eat anything (meats as well as vegetables); the weak were vegetarians (14:2).
The strong regarded every day as being “good.” The weak regarded one day as being better than another (14:5).
Note: The issues here have nothing to do with the gospel, but to the relative strength or weakness of individuals' faith in the gospel. Where essentials of the gospel were at stake, Paul's response is very different (Gal. 1:6, 7)