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Indigenous People of Australia and Oceania

Cultural groups, Aborigines and Maori
by

Atrice Adeniyi

on 14 December 2012

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Transcript of Indigenous People of Australia and Oceania

Indigenous People of Australia and Oceania Aboriginal people - "from the beginning" The Indigenous Australian peoples were the first developed human culture on the continent around 30,000 B.C. Considered the oldest continuous human culture in the world. - Lifestyle included nomadic hunting and gathering
- Learned to adapt to the dry climate of the region
- Lived in clans
- Strong association with the land, considered sacred by the Indigenous Australians
- Lived in isolation After European arrived, the cultures of the Indigenous Australians and Torres Strait Island peoples were threatened. Disease, malnutrition, and violent conflicts pushed many off of their homelands. By 1921, only 62,000 Indigenous Australian peoples remained. Indigenous Australians consider Uluru a sacred site. Rock art paintings reveal Aboriginal beliefs. Aboriginal peoples believed the world was created during the "Dreamtime." Government took control of their lands.
Some were placed on reservations and were subject to forced labor. Assimilation policy denied Indigenous Australians basic human rights. From about 1870 to 1970 children were removed from their society and given to white families. This is known as the Stolen Generation. Today some lands have been returned. In 1973, the Austrialian federal government passed the Aboriginal Land Rights Act granting land rights in the Northern Territory. Court cases have been filed and won recognizing the rights and land ownership of the Aboriginal peoples in Australia in the cases Mabo v. Queensland and Wik v. Queensland. Indigenous Australian peoples and Torres Strait Island peoples still face challenges of attaining health care and employment. Aboriginal and Maori people The Maori people are the original inhabitants of New Zealand. The Maori people arrived from Polynesia between 1000 and 1400 settling mostly on North Island. When explorers and colonists arrived, the Maori people embraced European culture, technology, and religion. However, with the introduction of the musket, European diseases, and western farming techniques, the culture of the Maori people began to collapse. The Treaty of Waitangi with the Maori people (1840) annexed New Zealand to Great Britain and control of the islands was in British hands. As a result of colonization, the Maori people lost lands to the British with fighting and disease permanently disrupted the Maori society.
The bravery of Maori battalions in WWII led to increased awareness and a renaissance of Maori culture in the second half of 20th century.
Current issues facing the Maori people include cultural identity, cultural changes, and land grievances.
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