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Keni McG

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Infancy

Macronutrient malnutrition results from a diet that has too few calories, and is the leading cause of death among children under the age of 5

A severe calorie deficit leads to marasmus, infants weigh 60% of what they should

Most infants suffering from marasmus also suffer from parasitic infections that lead to chronic diarrhea

can be treated with a program of dietary supplementation with formula and intravenous feedings Obstacle 1 Obstacle 2 Obstacle 3 Chapter 6 Social and Personality Development in Infancy Start Chapter 4 Attachment Theory
**describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans** Infancy by Lisa E.
Jackie C.
Kenicia M. Malnutrition Chapter 5 Definition Children from birth to 3 years of age period during which the greatest degree of physical change occurs
-have very limited physical skills
-brain is racing ahead of the rest of her body- a developmental pattern that accounts for the “top heavy” appearance of toddlers Physical Changes The Brain and Nervous System -Develop rapidly during the first 2 years

-At birth, the midbrain and medulla are the most fully

-Least developed part is the cortex all brain structures are composed of 2 basic cell types: neurons and glial cells
-millions of these cells are present at birth, and synapses- connections between neurons have begun to form
Synaptogenesis occurs rapidly in the cortex during the first few years after birth
with each cycle, the brain becomes more efficient Synaptic Development -a 1 year old actually has denser dendrites and synapses than an adult does
-because infants have more unused synapses than adults, they can bounce back from insults to the brain much more easily than an adult (ex: malnutrition, head injury)
Plasticity- the brain’s ability to change in response to experience
period of greatest plasticity is also the period in which the child may be most vulnerable to major deficits Synaptic Development the creation of sheaths, or coverings, around indivual axons which insulate them from one another electrically and improve their conductivity
-sheaths are made of myelin,
-most rapid during the first 2 years after birth, but continues at a slower pace throughout childhood and adolescence
(ex: parts of brain involved in vision reach maturity by 2nd birthday, motor movements 6yrs old) Myenlinization - born with adaptive reflexes that help them to survive
-some such as automatically sucking on any object that enters the mouth, disappear during infancy
-others protect against harmful stimuli over the entire lifespan (ex: withdrawal from painful stimuli, or opening and closing of the pupil in response to variations in brightness)
-weak or absent reflexes suggest that the brain is not functioning properly and that the infant requires additional assessment
-primitive reflexes are controlled by less sophisticated parts of the brain
-by 6 to 8 months of age, primitive reflexes begin to disappear Reflexes Behavioral States -5 different states of sleep and wakefulness occur in neonates
-most move through the states in the same sequence: from deep sleep to lighter sleep and then to alert wakefulness and fussing
-after they are fed, they become drowsy and drop back into deep sleep
-cycle repeats every 2 hours
-sleep patterns change over first few months
-neonates sleep as much as 80% of the time
-by 8 weeks, amount of sleep drops and signs of day/night sleep rhythms become evident
-by 6 months, babies are still sleeping about 14 hours a day, but patterns are more predictable Behavioral States -babies have different cries for pain, hunger, and anger
-about 15-20% of infants develop colic, a pattern involving intense bouts of crying totaling 3 or more hours a day for no apparent reason
-typically appears at 2 weeks and disappears at 3 to 4 months -half of all of our growth happens before infants reach 2 years
-physical development proceeds from the head downward (cephalocaudal pattern) and from the center outward (proximodistal pattern)
-babies grow 10-12 inches and triple their body weight by the first year of life
-by age 2, girls are about half as tall as they will be as adults, and 2 ½ for boys Growth, Motor Skills, and Developing Body Systems -dynamic systems theory- Ester Thelen’s view that several factors interact to influence development
-research provides support for the notion that experience influences motor development Motor Skill Development -during infancy bones change in size, number, and composition
-changes in number and density of bones are responsible for improvements in coordinated movements
-ex: the wrist contains a single mass of cartilage at birth, and develops into three separate bones by 1 year
-ossification- bone hardening occurs, beginning in the last weeks of prenatal development through puberty, motor development depends on this
-ex: infant cannot stand if its leg bones are too soft Developing Body Systems -during infancy bones change in size, number, and composition
-changes in number and density of bones are responsible for improvements in coordinated movements
-ex: the wrist contains a single mass of cartilage at birth, and develops into three separate bones by 1 year
-ossification- bone hardening occurs, beginning in the last weeks of prenatal development through puberty, motor development depends on this
-ex: infant cannot stand if its leg bones are too soft Developing Body Systems Nutrition -preterm babies require special formulas that contain amino acids and fats, breast milk alone is not sufficient
-mothers who abuse substances or medications for their own health problems should not breastfeed
-up until 4 to 6 months babies need only breast milk or formula accompanied by appropriate supplements
-pediatricians recommend withholding solid foods until a baby is at least 6 months old Nutrition -for most infants, breastfeeding is superior nutritionally to bottle-feeding
-breastfeeding contributes to more rapid weight and size gain
-infants who are breastfed are less likely to suffer from problems such as diarrhea, bronchitis, ear infections, colic, and less likely to die during infancy
-breast milk appears to stimulate better in immune system function
-breastfeeding is strongly recommended by physicians Malnutrition Kwashiorkor- when infant’s diet contains enough calories but not enough protein, can lead to variety of problems like permanent brain damage

 Iron-deficiency anemia can develop in infants who are still getting most of their calories from milk after 12 months

Infants are tested for anemia during check-ups Health Care and Immunizations check-ups are extremely important
-immunizations are most effective when they begin in the first month
-the more people a baby is exposed to, the more likely they are to get sick Infant Mortality -infant mortality- death within the first year after birth
-sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)- when an apparently healthy infant dies suddenly and unexpectedly between 1-12 months
-no basic cause
-more common in the winter due to viral infections, and in babies with a history of apnea- brief periods when their breathing suddenly stops Infant Mortality -more frequent among babies who sleep on their side or stomachs, or with extra bedding
-smoking by the mother during pregnancy, or at home after birth is a contributor
-African Americans have the highest rates of infant death Vision -at birth an infant’s range of visual acuity is in the range of 20/200 to 20/400
-experts believe most children reach the level of 20/20 vision by 6 months of age
-cones-cells that perceive red and green are present in the eyes by 1 month, infants can sense color
-tracking-the process of following a moving object with your eye, is initially inefficient in infants but improves around 6 to 10 weeks http://www.frontiersinoptics.com/osa.fio/media/FIOLibrary/2013/062512-InfantVision1.jpg Hearing -newborns auditory acuity is better than visual acuity
-can hear nearly as well as adults do, with the exception of high pitch sounds
-can judge the general direction from which a sound has come Smelling and Tasting -newborns appear to respond differentially to all of the 4 basic flavors
-can taste unami- flavor that comes from adding monosodium glutamate to foods that are typical to high proteins and glutamates
-research says that newborns have a preference for unmami-flavored and sweet foods, similar to breast milk Touch and Motion -well developed senses
-more sensitive to touches on the mouth, face, hands, soles of feet and abdomen -3 basic strategies:
-preference technique- devised by Robert Franz, a baby is shown 2 pictures or objects and it is recorded how long the baby looks at each one, if the baby looks at one longer than the other, we know the object has gotten its attention
-habituation- getting used to the stimulus, a baby is presented a particular sight, sound or object over and over until it habituates and then a different stimulus is presented, if the baby shows renewed interest then we can tell the baby knows it is different
-operant conditioning How do researchers study perceptual development in infants? Depth Perception -at 3 months kinetic information is used- an infant’s own motion or the motion of some object
-at 4 months binocular cues are used- in which both eyes are used and an infant can tell how far away an object is
-at 5 to 7 months linear perspective and other pictorial cues are used-only one eye is used and an infant can determine size What Babies Look At In the first 2 months, baby’s visual attention is guided by patterns
Motion also captures the baby’s attention
Infants prefer to look at their mother’s face Listening -as early as 1 month, babies can discriminate between speech sounds
-by 6 months babies can discriminate between two-syllable words
-can discriminate between voices and prefer their mother’s voice Combining the Senses -intermodal perception- the formation of a single perception of a stimulus that is based on information from 2 or more senses
-can be seen as early as 1 month and becomes common by 6 months
-important in infant learning Perceptual Development -nativists claim that most perceptual abilities are inborn
-empiricists argue that the skills are learned
-both views can be correct Parent's Attachment to Infant -Sychrony

-Mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors between caregiver and infant Infant's Attachment to Parent *Phase 1- Nonconfused orienting and signaling (birth to 3 months)
Use crying, smiling and eye contact to draw attention when in need
Signals are directed to everyone they come in contact with
*Phase 2-Focus on one or more figures (3 to 6 months)
Signals are directed to less people
Mostly directed to those they spend the most time with or are more familiar with
*Phase 3-Secure base behavior (6 to 24 months)
Forms of attachment can be seen
Cling to caregivers
Evident when hungry, injured or frightened
Referred to as “safe bases” in book
*Phase 4- Internal model (24 months and beyond)
Able to see how their behaviors/actions may affect those they are attached to
EX: Children to parents
Romantic relationships Stranger Anxiety: Clinging to mother when strangers are present

Separation Anxiety: when infants cry or protest being separated from the mother Social Referencing: when infants use cues from facial expressions and the emotional tone of voice used by their attachment figures to help them figure out what to do in novel situations EX: being examined by health care provider A Strange Situation Mary Ainsworth
-American-Canadian Developmental psychologist
*conducted by Ainsworth to observe the different relationships between infants and “caregivers”
*children are watched as they play for 20-3min and are exposed to several different situations... 1. with mother
2. with mother/stranger
3. alone with stranger
4. completely alone
5. reunited with mother
6. alone again
7. with stranger again
8. reunited with mother
Four aspects of the child's behavior are observed:

The amount of exploration (e.g. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout.

The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver.

The stranger anxiety (when the baby is alone with the stranger).

The child's reunion behavior with its caregiver.

Kinds of Attachment concluded by Ainsworth after observations Kinds of Attachment concluded by Ainsworth after observations -Secure Attachment
*children are not hesitant to explore as long as caregiver is present; distressed when caregiver leaves; comforted by stranger; prefers presence of caregiver
-Anxious-Resistant Insecure Attachment
*hesistant to explore regardless of who is present; extremely distressed when caregiver leaves; is not comforted upon their return; shows resentment
-Anxious-Avoidant Insecure Attachment
*avoids/ignores caregiver; unaffected by caregiver's departure; rejects being comforted by caregiver; no difference in treatment between caregiver and stranger; does not explore
-Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment (added later on)
*may cry during separation but avoid caregiver; resorts to rocking, hitting self
56% of mothers who had lost a parent by death before they completed high school subsequently had children with disorganized attachments Harlow Personality: Patterns in the way children and adults relate to the people and objects in the world around them Temperament: Inborn predispositions, such as activity level, that form foundations of personality *Easy children (40%)- routine sleeping cycle and eating habits, generally happy and react positively to environment/new situations
*Difficult children (10%)- random sleeping cycle and eating habits, emotionally negative and have trouble adapting to new situations
*Slow-to-warm-up children(15%)-reactions can be both positive and negative, also have trouble adapting to new situations 3 Main types of Temperament 5 Key dimensions of Temperament *Activity Level
*Approach/positive emotionally/sociability
*Inhibition and anxiety
*Negative emotionally/irritability/anger/emotionally
*Effortful control/task persistence
**Remaining percentage of infants display combinations of temperaments Self Concept *Subjective self: aka existential self; first stage of self-awareness
*Objective self: aka categorical self; defining oneself
*Emotional self-when babies learn to changes in emotions expressed by people they are exposed to -2-3months-better with familiar faces-begin to respond to facial expressions at 5-7months-familiarity does not affect whether they respond or not Importance of Attachment -Quality of attachment has a great influence on sociability in later life
-can also affect sexual health
-greater impact than sexual abuse according to research

EX: Genie the Wild Child Niche picking: temperament – environment interactions strengthen qualities that we already possess Cognitive Development in Infancy Piaget’s View of the First 2 Years Sensorimotor intelligence: Baby assimilates information through a limited array of schemes she is born with—looking, listening, sucking, grasping—and then accommodates those schemes based on her experiences (Boyd 109).
Sensorimotor stage is a period during which infants develop and refine sensorimotor intelligence
***Categorized in substages 1-6 Challenging Piaget: Abilities may be built in from the beginning and develop continuously throughout infancy Object Permanence Imitation Object permanence- understanding that objects continue to exist when they can’t be seen
Computer technology can test object permanence in younger infants by tracking eye responses to hidden and reappeared objects (4 to 5 month year olds do understand object permanence)
1 year olds successfully understand through manipulation or “playful games”
Infants can learn specific behaviors through modeling Infants imitate some facial gestures in the first few weeks of life, and deferred imitation seems to occur as early as 9 months
deferred imitation- imitation that occurs in the absence of the model who first demonstrated it Imitation One hour old Lyra demonstrates her ability to imitate facial movements. She is alert and able to copy her father poking out his tongue. Elizabeth Spelke Challenging Piaget’s characterization of infant cognitive thinking led to developmental research investigations under more general terms on object permanence: object concept.
Object concept- infant’s understanding of the nature of objects and how they behave
 Spelke has led the most influential investigations of object concept
She believed that babies are born with certain built-in assumptions that guide their interactions with objects (ex: connected-surface principle: when two surfaces are connected together then they must belong to the same object) Spelke’s Classic Study of Object Perception 1992 violation-of-expectations method: research strategy in which researchers move an object in one way after having taught an infant to expect it to move in another
Proved that 2-3 month olds are aware of what kinds of movements objects are capable of Spelke’s Classic Study of Object Perception Steps:
1. Familiarization
2. Consistency test
3. Inconsistent test Object Stability Perception Renée Baillargeon Others Argued that knowledge of objects are not built in, but the strategies for learning are innate.
Babies hypothesize the functions of objects and then those hypotheses are modified through experience.
At 2-3 months old: hypothesize that objects will fall if not supported by something
By 5 months, infants know how much support is needed for object stability Leslie Cohen argued infants (aged 8 months) respond to stimuli based on novelty rather than understanding
Difficult to make inferences on infant’s thinking from their interactions with objects
Young infants’ understanding of objects is the foundation upon which the object concept is gradually constructed and applied to real-world interaction with objects over the first 3 years of life. Object Stability Perception Objective:
2-3 months old: think smiling block will not fall under either of these conditions

5 month old: understands that only condition (a) is stable whereas in condition (b) the block will fall Learning “Generally, the term learning is used to denote permanent changes in behavior that result from experience” (Boyd 115). Classical/ Operant Conditioning:
Begins in the first few weeks of life
Mavis Gunther: Smothering breast example classical
UCS (smothering of right breast)UCR (refusal)
CS (right breast)  CR(refusal)
Pacifier-activated lullaby (PAL) operant Modeling:
Learning by watching models (especially in the second year)
Provasi study: “Observers” vs “Actors”
By 14 months, infants distinguish between successful and unsuccessful models (more likely to imitate those who succeed at an attempted task) Categorizing Schematic learning: organization of expectancies (schemas), which enable infants to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar stimuli
Infants build and use categories as they take in information
7 months old: use of categories to process information but do not understand the lower-level and higher-level categories
Respond to superordinate categories above basic-level categories
12 months: understand basic-level categories
2 years old: understand hierarchical categorization Memory Fact: Newborns are capable of remembering auditory stimuli while sleeping
Highly specific memory
With age, memories become less tied to specific cues or contexts
Carolyn Rovee-Collier Hanging Mobile study
3 months: remember specific objects and their own actions with those objects (1 week delay)
Supports Piaget’s view that infants show systematic gains in the ability to remember over the months of infancy
Early infant memories are strongly tied to the specific context in which the original experience occurred Hanging Mobile study The Behaviorist View B.F. Skinner claimed that language development begins with babbling
Parents encourage babbling that sound like real words
Increased word-like babbling, decreased unrecognizable utterances
Hypothesis: response to grammatical use of words will increase the infant’s use of grammar
Flaw: Parents imitate babbling which should only prolong babbling so operant conditioning is not the only principle to learning language The Nativist View: Noam Chomsky Dan Slobin Children that overregularize words, refute the behaviorist view of language development
Ex: “I breaked it” vs “I broke it” “Foots or feets” vs “feet”
Chomsky proposal: children acquire grammar rules before mastering the exceptions
Language acquisition device (LAD)- children’s comprehension and production of language are guided by an innate language processor
Tells infants what characteristics of language to look for in speech
Proof: All human languages have the same grammatical forms
Species specific (nonhuman species cannot learn grammatical language) Infants are preprogrammed to pay attention to the beginnings and endings of strings of sounds and to stressed sounds
English: verb and noun
Turkish: prefixes and suffixes
Makes sense to assume “stressed sounds” since each language have different grammatical structures The Interactionist View Idea Support Interactionists argue that language development is a subprocess of general cognitive development and is influenced by both internal and external factors
1. Infants are born with some kind of biological preparedness to pay more attention to language
2. An infant’s brain has a generalized set of tools that it employs across all of the subdomains of cognitive development Melissa Bowerman states “When language starts to come in, it does not introduce new meanings to the child. Rather, it is used to express only those meanings that child has already formulated independently of language” (118).
Lois Bloom: Intent to communicate
Proof: children initiate verbal exchange
Proof: Symbolic play, imitation, and language develop together (around first words are formed) Environmental Influences 1. Parents that read, talk, and use a wide range of vocabulary with their children
2. Poverty
3. Infant-directed speech (IDS)- simplified, higher-pitched speech that adults use with infants and young children
Nicknamed “motherese” or “parentese”
Child preference for IDS rather than adult-directed speech Weker study
IDS helps infants identify sounds in mother’s speech that are specific to language
“Where is the ball? Can you see the ball? Where is the ball? There is the ball!” Repetition and variation
Child: “Doggie not eating”
Mother: “Doggie is not eating” Recasting Milestones of Language Development Individual Differences Rate: MLU
Single words by 8months or 18 months
Two words might not be until 3 years later
Mean length of utterance (average sentence length) used as a measure of sentence construction over time
97% catch up by age 6 (those that do not have poor receptive language)
Style: Katherine Nielson
Expressive style- “personal-social” words (you, me, no, want)
Referential style- names for things or people
More cognitively orientated (Elizabeth Bates)
Acquire language more rapidly (people and object association)
Elicits referential speech similar to mother Vocabulary Growth Cultural Differences Similarities: Differences: Cooing before babbling
Understanding language then speaking the language
12 months: first words
18 months: Holophrases before telegraphic speech First use of specific word order
( noun/verb vs verb/noun)
Inflections learned in varied orders
Japanese pragmatic markers: yo and ne
Languages with simple two-word-sentences without inflection
Turkish language: age 2 and using full set of nouns and verbs with inflections Difficult to measure intelligence in infancy
Intelligence- ability to take in information and use it to adapt to the environment
Bayley Scales of Infant Development:
measures primarily sensory and motor skills
Helpful in identifying infants and toddlers with serious developmental delays
Not effective at predicting later IQ or school performance
Bayley- III tests include cognitive and language measures
Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence uses habituation (alternative) Intelligence Tests the Motor Skills portion of the assessment of Bayley Scales of Infant Development test Denver II test -conducted experiment with rhesus monkeys (macaques)
-compared effects of cloth mother to wire mother(each with and without food)
-monkeys preferred cloth mother even if it didn't provide food
-contact comfort essential in proper development The Nature of Love
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