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The Chinese Revolution (1900-1948)

Fall of the Qing Dynasty Revolution of 1911 Republic of China (1912-1948)

Shela Wang

on 16 June 2010

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Transcript of The Chinese Revolution (1900-1948)

1900-1949 Fall of the Qing Dynasty
Revolution of 1911
Republic of China 1912-1948 BACKGROUND:
The Decline of the Qing Dynasty
Late 19th century Qing Dynasty = Manchu Unable to modernize Foreigners Britain France Japan Opium War (1839-1842) Treaty of Nanking Team-up with Britain Attacked Beijing (1860) Attacked 1894 Annexed Korea, Taiwan, Port Arthur Unequal treaties Discontent REBELLION Spheres of influence Boxer Rebellion (1900) Taiping Rebellion
(1850-1864) REFORM Empress Dowager Cixi Education Military Government Yuan Shih-kai The Fall of the Qing
and the Revolution of 1911 Nationalism Commercial interests Urban intellectuals Peasants and farmers Dr. Sun Yat-sen "The Father of the Revolution" Western education Three Principles
of revolution: National freedom
Democratic government
The people's livelihood Four powers of the people: Right to vote
Right to recall
Power of initiative
Power of referendum Three stages of revolution: 3 years military government
6 years political tutelage
Democracy! Yay! 1911 Economic difficulty More discontent Neither poor nor wealthy were happy Sept. 1911 Rebellion against government's plan to nationalize railroads
Originally started by conservatives and the wealthy
Led by Sun Yat-Sen
Started in Sichuan Province and spread through central and southern China
January 1, 1912 Republic of China formed
Sun Yat-sen elected provisional president
Qing Dynasty still in government Yuan Shih-kai Military leader
Appointed to suppress rebellion
Realized imperial government was about to collapse, joined the rebels
Agreed to force the Qing to abdicate if promised the presidency in the new republic February 12, 1912 Emperor stepped down
Agreed that China would be a constitutional republic
Officially ended imperial rule in China More on Yuan Shih-kai Republic of China
1912-1928 Forced the Emperor to abdicate during the Revolution Wanted to be emperor himself Dissolved the parliament CHAOS Provinces seceded Yuan stepped down in 1916 Named emperor in 1916 Nationalists not in China Presidency? Provincial warlords Revolutionary
Movements May Fourth Movement (1919) New Tide Communism Mao Zedong Marxism Communist Party of China (CPC) Kuomintang (KMT) Chinese Nationalist Party Help from
Russia Whampoa Military Academy Chiang Kai-shek Kiaochow (Jiaozhou) Chiang Kai-shek Commanding General
of the army In charge of military academy Admired Sun Yat-sen Firm nationalist The Northern Expedition
(1926-1927) 1928 Nationalist Party THREATS Within the KMT "Political tutelage" Communists Warlords Japanese Gained support The Long March (1934-1936) 1934 War of Resistance Second Sino-Japanese War Total War KMT + CPC
vs. Japan 1945 Japan defeated KMT and CPC in control Alliance breaks down KMT CPC Nationalist Party Communist Party Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong
Zhou Enlai vs. 1949
Full transcript